Stability of the monarchy

In 1553 Henry VIII had issued a Third Succession Act. What did it state?
It stated that if Edward died without heirs the throne would pass to Mary and if Mary were to die without heirs then the throne would go to Elizabeth and to her heirs.
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What did Paget and Denny do about Henry's will?
They left plenty of space in the King's will for changes to be added when the King was close to death and unable to prevent them. Denny also controlled the dry stamp.
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Who led the 'reformists' in the Regency Council?
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Who led the 'Catholics' in the Regency Council?
Norfolk and Gardiner.
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List 4 problems of a minor on the throne.
1. He would be unable to lead troops into battle. 2.Others states might look to exploit the weakness of a minor and attack. 3. England might return to civil war. 4. He would be unable to control factional struggles.
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Was Edward a sickly child when he came to the throne?
No. There was every expectation that he would reach adulthood and produce an heir.
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Who was Somerset and what was his reputation?
Somerset was Edward's uncle and had built up the reputation as a successful soldier during the campaigns against Scotland in the 1540's.
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Why did some people question the legality of Somerset's power?
As it went against Henry's wishes.
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Had England been ruled by a female before Mary?
Yes, in the 12th century. It resulted in a civil war as many refused to accept Matilda as Queen.
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What was the law in some countries that excluded women from the throne?
Salic law.
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What was the 16th century view of women?
That they should be subservient to their husbands.
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What was a concern about Mary coming to power?
1. If Mary married an Englishman the power of her husband's family would increase and they might dominate court.
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What was another concern about Mary coming to power?
2. If Mary married a foreigner there were fears that the country would be dominated by foreigners.
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Who were Mary's only two possible candidates for marriage?
Edward Courtenay who was backed by Gardiner and Philip of Spain who was backed by Paget.
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Why did Mary prefer Philip over Courtenay despite Courtenay descending from royal blood?
She hoped it would bring England closer to the Habsburgs, the family to which her mother Catherine of Aragon, was related.
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What evidence is there to suggest instability caused by a female ruler?
The treaty and reassurances did not prevent rebellion which broke out in Jan 1554. Only 6 months after the defeat of Jane.
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When did Mary inform the Council of her decision and what was the response?
27 October 1553. There was a petition from the House of Commons opposing her decision but she ignored it.
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Who plotted against Mary's marriage?
Peter Carew, Thomas Wyatt, James Croft. All members of the political elite.
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What evidence suggests a secure female monarch?
Despite a royal force being sent under Norfolk to confront the rebels deserting, Mary refused to leave as they got to the gates of the city of London.
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What influence did Philip have on Mary?
Very little. After the marriage Philip spent more time abroad than in the country, limiting his influence to, at best, a distant confidant.
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Why do some accounts suggest it was Northumberland's doing to exclude Mary?
As it was essential to preserve his power, as a Protestant he would lose power when the Catholic Mary came to the throne.
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How did Northumberland attempt to exclude Mary?
By marrying his son, Guildford Dudley, to Jane.
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What evidence is there to suggest that Edward was the driving force behind the attempts to change his will?
He was playing a greater role in gov by attending Privy meetings and setting some agendas, Edward was a committed Protestant and wanted the religious reform programme he had started to continue.
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When was the Devise drawn up?
May 1553.
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Why did Northumberland's importance increase with the Devise?
As when Guilford married Jane she was not longer the heir.
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What would have Northumberland ensured if he was responsible for the plot?
Ensured that he had sufficient forces and that Mary was captured.
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Why was the question of legitimacy important to the working class?
Because if they supported an illegal claimant all laws could be challenged and their right to land questioned. It was in their interest to support the rightful heir.
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What did Mary passing on the crown to Elizabeth peacefully after her death suggest?
Suggests that legitimacy and the succession as stated by Henry in the Third Succession Act was more important than issues of religious belief.
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What did disquiet within governing circles lead to?
the formation of an anti-Somerset faction.
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Who was a part of the anti-Somerset faction?
Paget, Warwick and Wriothesley.
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How did Somerset react to his power declining?
He retreated to Hampton Court with Edward on Oct 5th and summoned loyal subjects there to defend him and the king.
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How did Edward respond to Somerset then taking him to Windsor ?
He claimed that he was a prisoner and left his uncle.
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What did Edward accuse Somerset of?
Of threatening to start riots if he was removed from power.
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How did Warwick attempt to consolidate his power?
By bringing in his own supporters in important positions around Edward.
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What affect did the factional struggle of 1549-50 have?
The administration of the country continued to function and did not impact on the efficiency of the government. Short-lived and did not threaten the monarchy.
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When and why was Somerset released then executed?
He was executed on 22 Jan 1552 for having continued to plot in an attempt to remover his position
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What evidence is there to suggest that Mary was unable to control factions?
Two of her leading councillors supported different suitors.
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Why was Mary's Privy Council large?
As she brought in her own supporters but also kept many key experienced administrators.
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What points challenge the idea that her Council was ineffective?
It was rare for all councillors to be present, the average size of meetings was similar to those under Northumberland, an inner council was formed in 1555/
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Why did Gardiner and Paget clash.
Mary's marriage and the revival of the heresy laws.
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What were the heresy laws?
a historic criminal offence comprised of the act of deviation or denial of church or religious system.
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What did Parliament reject in 1544 April?
The reintroduction of the heresy laws.
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What was the cause of the struggle to reintroduce the heresy laws?
the factional struggle between Paget and Gardiner, because the same legislation that had initially been rejected was passed once Paget supporters backed it.
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What affect did the arrival of Cardinal Pole as papal legate have?
It changed the nature of court politics.
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Why did Mary refer everything to Pole?
Because she didn't trust her councillor's advice.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What did Paget and Denny do about Henry's will?


They left plenty of space in the King's will for changes to be added when the King was close to death and unable to prevent them. Denny also controlled the dry stamp.

Card 3


Who led the 'reformists' in the Regency Council?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who led the 'Catholics' in the Regency Council?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


List 4 problems of a minor on the throne.


Preview of the front of card 5
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