• Created by: abiavery
  • Created on: 26-03-19 10:05
What is the aim of profiling?
Create an idea of the offenders likely characteristics
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American Profiling
Top Down
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British Profiling
Bottom Up
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American Top-Down Stages
Profile Input. Decision Processing Mode. Crime Assessment. Criminal Profile. Criminal Assessment. Apprehension.
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Profile Input
data is collected, including description of the crime scene, background information of the victim and details of the crime
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Decision Processing Model
Putting the data into categories: murder type, time factors, location factors
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Crime Assesment
criminals categorised as organised or disorganised
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Criminal Profile
Hypothesis of background, beliefs and habits
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Criminal Assesment
A written report given to an investigating agency
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Suspect is apprehended and the entire process is reviewed
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__% of police officers questioned said they would use the top-down Approach Again and __% said it was useful
90% 82%
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Why is the basis of the top-down approach flawed?
original data based on 36 convicted killers, which isn't the most reliable, especially with typical offenders
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Why does the court describe the top-down approach as junk science?
ambiguous descriptions can fit any suspect, which may mislead the police
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Problems with distinguishing between organised and disorganised
more like a continuum rather than distinct categories, and a study found no clear distinction
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Canter Bottom-Up Approach
Interpersonal Coherence. Forensic Awareness. Smallest Space Analysis.
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Smallest Space Analysis
Instrumental Opportunistic. Instrumental Cognitive. Expressive Impulsive.
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Instrumental Opportunistic
Where the offender has something to gain
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Instrumental Cognitive
Where the offender has particular concern about being detected
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Expressive Impulsive
Where the offender is uncontrolled
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Forensic Awareness
Certain behaviours may reveal an awareness of particular police techniques and past experiences
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Interpersonal Coherence
People are consistent with their behaviour, so there will be correlations with elements of crime
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Geographical Profiling
Analysis the locations of a connected series of crimes
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The Circle Theory
Believed that most offenders have a spatial mindset: marauders and commuters
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computerised system, where a formula produces a 3D map displaying spatial data relating to time, distance and movement to and from crimes
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Scientific basis of bottom-up approach
uses objective statistical data, but the data is only from caught criminals
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__% said the bottom-up approach was useful, but only _% said the advice helped them identify the offender. Most said they would use the approach again.
75% 3%
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Study looked at sexual assaults and showed support for model by distinguishing between marauders and commuters, but __% were classified as marauders. If almost all offenders are marauders… is the classification useful
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is geographical profiling useful?
useful in protitising house-to-house searches but can't distinguish between different offenders
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


American Profiling


Top Down

Card 3


British Profiling


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Card 4


American Top-Down Stages


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Card 5


Profile Input


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