Principles and Applications 2 Biology

What is an artery?
A blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
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What is a vein?
A blood vessel carrying blood to the heart
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What is the job of the cardiovascular system?
- Pump blood around the body
- Carry deoxygenated blood to lungs
- Carry oxygen to where it is needed
- Transport minerals and nutrients
- Removes waste
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What are the parts of the cardiovascular system?
- Heart
- Blood
- Blood vessels
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Describe the heart
- Muscular pump
- Strongest muscle in the body
- Myogenic
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Describe the blood
Connective tissue with liquid matrix
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What are the blood vessels
- Venules
- Veins
- Arterioles
- Arteries
- Capillaries
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What is the structure of the heart?
Three layers of tissue:
- outer epicardium
- middle myocardium
- inner endocardium
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Describe the cardiac muscle
- myogenic (beats on its own)
- contracts involuntarily
- cells connected by cytoplasmic bridges allowing electrical impulses to pass
- lots of mitochondria and myoglobin molecules
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What are the four chambers of the heart?
- Right atrium
- Right ventricle
- Left atrium
- Left ventricle
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What are the atria?
- Multiple atrium = atria
The two thin atria are thin-walled chambers that receive blood from the veins
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What are the two ventricles in the heart?
Thick walled chambers that forcefully pump blood out of the heart
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Who is Gunther Von Hagen?
Scientist that mapped blood vessels in the human body by plastination
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What are the two types of circulatory system?
Open and Closed
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How many chambers are there in a mammal heart?
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Which blood vessel carries oxygenated blood away from the heart?
Arteries / Aorta
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What are the main constituents of blood?
- red blood cells
- plasma
- white blood cells
- platelets
- glucose
- nutrients
- hormones
- minerals
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What is haemolymph?
The insect version of blood
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What is the function of the aorta?
The biggest and longest artery in the body.
It carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the body
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What is the Inferior Vena Cava?
A large vein that carries deoxygenated blood to the right atrium from the lower half of the body
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What is the left atrium?
The left upper chamber of the heart
It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary vein
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What is the left ventricle?
The left lower chamber of the heart
It pumps blood into the aorta
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What is the mitral valve?
The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
It prevents the backflow of blood from the ventricle to the atrium
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What is the pulmonary artery?
The blood vessel carrying deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
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What is the pulmonary valve?
Thin pieces of tissue between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery.
Opens when the ventricle contracts, causing blood to rush into pulmonary artery
Closes when the ventricle relaxes, preventing backflow from the pulmonary artery to right atrium
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What is the pulmonary vein?
The blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
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What is the right atrium?
The right upper chamber of the heart.
It receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava
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What is the right ventricle?
The right lower chamber of the heart
It pumps blood into the pulmonary artery
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What is the septum?
The muscular wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart
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What is the superior vena cava?
A large vein that carries deoxygenated blood to the right atrium from the upper parts of the body
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What is the tricuspid valve?
The flaps between the right atrium and right ventricle
It is composed of three leaf like parts and prevents backflow of blood from the ventricle to the atrium
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What are the two types of valves found in the heart?
- Atrioventricular valves (AV)
- Semilunar valves (SL)
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Where are the AV valves located?
Between the atria and ventricles
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Where are the SL valves located?
At the bases of the large vessels leaving the ventricles
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What causes the normal lub-dub, lub-dub sound of the heart?
The heart sound is caused by the closing of valves
Lub- recoil of blood against AV valves
Dub- recoil of blood against SL valves
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What is a heart murmur?
Defective valves causing a hissing sound when blood squirts backward through valves
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What are the three phases of the cardiac cycle?
- Atrial systole
- Ventricular systole
- Diastole
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When does systole occur?
When the heart contracts to pump blood out
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When does diastole occur?
When the heart relaxes after contraction
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What is a normal blood pressure reading?
120 / 80
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What is the larger blood pressure value?
120 - systolic pressure (when the heart contracts)
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What is the lower blood pressure value?
80 - diastolic pressure (pressure when the heart relaxes)
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How is an electrocardiogram carried out?
Several electrodes are attached to specific places on a person's chest and limbs to detect changes in polarisation in the heart by measuring current at the skin surface
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What is a fast heartbeat called?
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What is a slow heart rate called?
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How does an arrhythmia occur?
If disturbances occur with the flow of the electrical discharge then arrhythmias in these contractions can occur
They range from harmless to life threatening
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What are the most common causes of arrhythmia?
- Heart disease (especially coronary heart disease)
- Heart failure
- Abnormal valve function
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What is cardiac output?
The amount of blood pumped around the body
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What two factors does cardiac output depend on?
- Stroke volume
- Heart rate
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What is stroke volume?
The volume of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each heart beat
It is around 75ml for typical adults
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How is cardiac output calculated?
Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
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What is blood?
A mixture of different types of cells suspended in a straw coloured liquid called plasma
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What is the main function of the blood?
To carry oxygen and nutrients to the body's cells, remove waste products and protect the body against infection
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Where is blood made?
In the bone marrow
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What are the four blood types?
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What is the Rhesus Factor?
85% of people have an extra antigen on red blood cells called D, these people are Rhesus positive (Rh+)
Rhesus negative (Rh-) people do not possess this antigen
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What is the universal donor?
Blood group O
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What is the universal recipient?
Blood group AB
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What is atherosclerosis?
Athero - arteries
Sclerosis - hardening
Arteries need to be able to stretch under high pressure
Atherosclerosis causes them to harden and narrow
It progresses slowly and blocks arteries
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What is gaseous exchange?
The movement of gases by diffusion between an organism and its environment across a barrier such as the alveolus wall
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What are three ways in which the structure of the lungs allows for efficient gas exchange?
- Large surface area
- Short diffusion pathway
- Capillary network
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Why must the barrier to diffusion be as thin as possible?
The walls of the alveoli are made of squamous epithelial cells and are only one cell thick.
This reduces the distance these molecules have to travel through and increases speed of ventilation
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How is a steep diffusion gradient achieved in the lungs?
Oxygen diffuses from a high conc. in alveoli down a conc. gradient to an area of low conc. in blood capillary
CO2 diffuses from a high conc. in blood capillary down a conc. gradient to an area of low conc. in alveoli
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What is emphysema?
A lung condition that causes shortness of breath.
In people with emphysema, the alveoli are damaged.
Overtime the inner walls of alveoli weaken and rupture creating larger air spaces instead of many small ones
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What happens during expiration?
External intercostal muscle relax and the ribcage moves down and in, the diaphragm moves up.
This causes volume to decrease and pressure to increase inside the thorax
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What happens during inspiration?
The diaphragm contracts and moves downwards, the external intercostal muscles contract and move up and out towards the rib cage, this increase the volume of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure in the lungs, so air is drawn into the lungs
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What feature of the alveoli supports efficient gas exchange?
- Folded walls
- Proximity to the capillary network
- One cell thick, providing a short diffusion pathway
- Lined by a layer of moisture, this reduces tension in the alveoli walls
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What happens to the
Surface area : volume
as size increases
As size increases the sa:v ratio decreases
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Describe type 1 alveolar cells
- Thin simple squamous epithelial cells
- site for gas exchange
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Describe type 2 alveolar cells
- Fewer
- Cuboidal epithelial cells
- Contain microvilli and secrete alveolar fluid
- Keep the surface moist
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What is Dalton's law?
According to Dalton's law, each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as it now other gases were present
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What is partial pressure?
The pressure of a specific gas is called its partial pressure Px and it measures in mmHg
Each gas diffuses independently from areas of high partial pressure to areas of low partial pressure
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What is myoglobin?
- Found in muscle
- No transport
- Makes muscle red
-Higher affinity for oxygen than haemoglobin
- Retains its oxygen until very low partial pressure (e.g during high rates of respiration such as intense exercise)
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What is Fick's law?
The rate of diffusion = (surface area x concentration difference) / distance
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What is the role of the rings of cartilage surrounding the trachea?
To keep the air passage open
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What is the role of ciliated cells and mucus that line the respiratory system?
They trap dust, dirt and pathogens
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What is the epiglottis?
The flap of cartilage that covers the glottis when swallowing, preventing food entering the trachea
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What are the advantages of breathing through the nose?
- Warms air
- Traps dust and pathogens, moves towards the opening of the airway
- Detects poisonous chemicals
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What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of a constant internal environment, keeping different factors within a certain range (temperature, pH, blood glucose)
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What is negative feedback?
A constant loop system
Works by detecting changes in the environment and coordinating responses to reverse that change
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What are the components of negative feedback mechanisms?
- output
- set point
- detectors
- coordinators
- effectors
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What are output, set point and detectors in negative feedback mechanisms?
Output - factor to be controlled
Set point - normal value for the factor
Detectors - (sensory receptors) monitor the output
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What are the coordinators and effectors in negative feedback mechanisms?
Coordinators - compare the actual output with the set point and send error signals when output is outside acceptable range
Effectors - restore output to set point
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What is a positive feedback system?
Where effectors work to amplify a change in the environment
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What are the main glands and hormones?
Pituitary gland - master gland
Adrenal gland - produces adrenaline
Thyroid gland -produces thyroxine
Pancreas - produces insulin
Testes- produces testosterone
Ovaries - produces oestrogen
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What is an exocrine gland?
Contains ducts that transport secretions from the gland to its surface
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What is an endocrine gland?
Secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
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What are examples of glands with both endocrine and exocrine functions?
- pancreas
- liver
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What are the structures of the urinary system?
- ureter
- bladder
- renal artery
- renal vein
- inferior vena cava
- kidney
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What is the function of the ureter?
To transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder
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What is the function of the bladder?
Collects urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination
Urine enter the bladder by the ureters and urine leaves the bladder by the urethra
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What is the function of the renal artery?
Delivers an oxygen rich blood supply to the cells in each kidney
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What is the function of the renal vein?
Once the blood has been filtered in the kidneys, it leaves via the renal veins
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What is the function of the inferior vena cava?
Transports processed blood to the heart
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What is the function of the kidney?
Filters waste products from the blood before turning them to urine
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What is a nephron?
The functional unit of the kidneys and lies mostly in the cortex, with the loop of Henle and collecting duct passing into the medulla
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What is Bowman's capsule?
Blood brought to kidney via renal artery - branches into afferent arterioles delivering blood to each capsule
Arteriole branches into dense capillary network inside capsule - glomerulus
capillaries join together to form the efferent arteriole - narrower
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How does ultrafiltration occur?
Blood from the afferent arteriole enters the glomerulus under high pressure
Fluid is forced out of the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule where the pressure is lower. Blood cells and other large proteins are too big to pass through the glomerulus
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What does the fluid within Bowman' capsule contain?
- water
- amino acids
- glucose
- urea
- inorganic ions
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What is selective reabsorption?
The reuptake of useful substances from the filtrate and occurs in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules
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How is the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule adapted to carry out reabsorption?
- microvilli
- co-transporter proteins
- high number of mitochondria
- tightly packed cells
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What happens at the descending loop of Henle?
Na+ and Cl- ions enter by diffusion
Water moves out of tubule into medullar tissue and then into the vasa recta by osmosis
This reduces the volume of filtrate which becomes more concentrated as it reaches the base of the loop of Henle and is hypertonic to
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What does hypertonic mean?
More concentrated than blood
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What does hypotonic mean?
Less concentrated than blood
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What happens at the distal convoluted tubule?
Water leaves the tubule and enters medullar tissue by osmosis, moving from high water potential to lower water potential, then into surrounding capillaries
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What do thirst receptors do?
The hypothalamus is connected to the thirst centres of the brain
When a reduction in blood water levels is detected, this triggers the thirst centre to make you thirsty and drink more.
When the stomach fills with fluids, this triggers the thirst centre to
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What can cause kidney failure?
- diabetes
- hypertension
- infection
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What are the treatment options if both kidneys are damaged?
No treatment - death as toxins build up and salt/water balance is upset
Kidney dialysis- artificial kidney machines carry out function of kidney outside the body
Kidney transplant - one healthy kidney from a donor replaces both kidneys
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What does dialysis fluid contain?
- a glucose concentration similar to a normal level in blood
- a concentration of salts similar to a normal level in blood
- no urea
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What can diffuse through the phopholipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
Lipid soluble and small molecules e.g O2 and CO2
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What diffuses through the hydrophilic channels in channel proteins?
Slightly polar molecules and slightly larger molecules
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How do molecules diffuse from high to lower concentration?
Passively - doesn't require energy
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How do large and polar molecules enter the cell?
Facilitated diffusion, down the concentration gradient with the aid of proteins:
- Carrier
- Gated channel
- Channel
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How does carrier proteins change their shape to allow molecules to pass through?
- Have specific sites to match transported molecule
- Change shape
- Pass through membrane together
- Goes back to original shape
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How do carrier proteins aid facilitated diffusion?
- Uses protein carrier proteins
- Carrier protein picks up molecule with matching shape
- Carrier protein rotates through membrane and deposits molecule on the other side
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What is osmosis?
Net movement of solvent molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration through a partially permeable membrane
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How does osmotic concentration relate to the amount of dissolved solutes in solution?
High osmotic concentration = concentrated solution with low water potential

Low osmotic concentration = dilute solution with high water potential
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Card 2


What is a vein?


A blood vessel carrying blood to the heart

Card 3


What is the job of the cardiovascular system?


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Card 4


What are the parts of the cardiovascular system?


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Card 5


Describe the heart


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