Physiology of Human Cells Topic 3

  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 09-11-16 14:13
Types of Muscle
Skeletal, cardiac and smooth
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Interaction of actin and myosin
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Skeletal Muscle Fibre
Arranged in bundles, contain nuclei
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Muscle Fascicle
Bundle of muscle fibres
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Skeletal Muscle
Muscle consisting of multiple fascicles connected by connective tissue
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Static force
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Dynamic force
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Muscle cell membrane
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Muscle cytoplasm
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Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Muscle endoplasmic reticulum
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Skeletal Muscle Macroscopic Components
Connective tissue, muscle fascicles, muscle fibers
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Skeletal Muscle Microscopic Components
Myofibrils, t-tubules, sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria
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Many make up a muscle fibre, contain thick filaments and thin filaments, surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum
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Connect myofibrils with the sarcolemma
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Protein which functions as molecular spring
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Thick Filaments
Polymers of myosin arranged into bundles, myosin head is ATPase and actin binding site
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Thin Filaments
Two actin polymer helices twisted together, G-actin molecules contain a myosin binding site
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Regulates myosin binding sites
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Helps align actin
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Sliding Filament Theory
H zone and I band shorten, actin filaments slide over myosin heads, causes contraction of muscle
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Troponin-Ca2+ Complex
Pulls tropomyosin away from G-actin binding site, allowing myosin to bind to actin and complete power stroke
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Glycolytic Fibre
Fast and fatigueable
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Oxidative Fibre
Slow and fatigue resistant
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Motor Neurone Action Potential
Sudden and fast action potential
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Muscle Fibre Action Potential
Gradual and fast action potential
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Muscle Fibre Tension Production
Gradual and slow contraction and relaxation following latent period
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Neurogenic Contraction
Skeletal muscle, contracts when motor nerve activated
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Myogenic Contraction
Cardiac muscle and most smooth muscle, contracts spontaneously
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Isometric Contraction
Sarcomeres shorten, but elastic elements stretch, so muscle remains the same length
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Isotonic Contraction
Sarcomeres shorten, as elastic elements are already stretched the entire muscle shortens
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Frequency of stimulation close together, reaches action potential threshold
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Frequency of stimulation close together and maintained, reaches maximum tension, can be fused or unfused
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Resistance Trainin
Increases number of myofibrils
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Small indentations in cell membrane between smooth muscle cells, concentrate Ca
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Smooth Muscle Contraction
Actin filaments slide along thick myosin filaments without encountering end of sarcomere, cell becomes globular
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Single Unit
Cells connected by gap junctions, all contract together
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Cells not connected, each stimulated separately by neurotransmitters released from varicosities
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Excitation/Contraction Coupling
Intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases, Ca2+ binds to calmodulin, complex activates MLCK which phosphorylates light chains and increases myosin ATPase activity, crossbridges slide along actin creating muscle tension
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Smooth Muscle Relaxation
Ca2+ unbinds from calmodulin, phosphate removed from myosin decreasing myosin ATPase activity, decreases muscle tension
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Slow Wave Potentials
Fire action potentials when they reach threshold
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Pharmacomechanical Coupling
Chemical signals change muscle tension without change in membrane potential
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Pacemaker Potentials
Always depolarise to threshold
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Sino-Atrial Node
Sends electrical current through cardiac muscle cells causing waves of contraction
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Sympathetic Stimulation
Speeds up pacemaker cells, epinephrine
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Parasympathetic Stimulation
Slows pacemaker cells, acetylcholine
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Starling's Law of the Heart
Heart pumps out all blood received
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Card 2


Interaction of actin and myosin



Card 3


Arranged in bundles, contain nuclei


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Card 4


Bundle of muscle fibres


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Card 5


Muscle consisting of multiple fascicles connected by connective tissue


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