Physics P1 Probemas

Physics P1.1 - Energy transfer by heating
Physics P1.1 - Energy transfer by heating
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Infrared radiation is energy the transfer by ________ waves
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All objects emit ________ radioation
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The ________ object, the more ________ radiation it emits in a given time.
Hotter, infrared
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What is the greenhouse effect?
The trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere, due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface.
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How can we reduce the production of greenhouse gasss?
Reduce use of fossil fuels in making fuels.
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What will happen if polar ice caps melt?
Sea levels will rise causing flooding.
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What type of surfaces emit more infra-red radiation than others?
Dark, matt surfaces emit more radiation than shiny, light surfaces.
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What type of surfaces also absorb more infrared radiation?
Dark matt surfaces absorb more than shiny, light surfaces.
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What type of surfaces relfect/insulate heat?
Light, shiny matt surfaces.
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Name four properties that describe matter: ________ ,________ ,________ ,________
Flow, shape, volume and density.
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What are the particle properties in a solid?
Particles in a solid are held next to each other in a fixed position.
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Properties of a liquid?
Move about at random and are in contact with each other. Doesn't have it's own shape, can flow.
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Properties of a gas?
Particles move around randomly, with much further apart particles than solids or liquid. Much less dense.
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What particles have most amounts of energy?
Gas more than liquid, liquid more than solid, solid having the least.
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What are the best conductors of energy?
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What two materials are the best at insulators?
Fibreglass and wool
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What causes conduction in metals?
Free electrons in the metal transferring energy
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Why are non-metals poor conductors?
They don't contain any free electrons.
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When a metal rod in heated at one end, what causes it to heat the other end?
Electrons diffuse and collide with other free electrons, in the colder parts of the metal, so kinetic energy is transferred.
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What is a better conductor than steel?
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What conducts better than glass (excluding metal)?
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What is convection?
The circulation of a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by heating it.
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What two matters does convection only take place in?
Liquids and gasses
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Heating a liquid or gas makes it less ________ so it rises and causes ________?
dense and cirulation
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What happens when a fluid is heated?
It becomes less dense and rises.
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What is evaporation?
When a liquid turns into a gas.
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What is condensation?
When a gas turns into a liquid.
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How can you increase the rate of evaporation?
Increasing surface area of liquid, increasing the temperature, or by creating a draught of air across the liquids surface.
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How can you increase the condensation rate of a surface?
Increasing surface area or lowering the temperature of the surface.
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Why does evaporation cause a cooling effect?
The remaining particles in the liquid have a lower average kinetic energy than before, so the liquid cools down as evaporation happens. This is why sweating cools you down. The sweat absorbs energy from your skin so that it can continue to evaporate.
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Energy transferred to or from an objects depends on:
Shape, size materials of object. Materials the object is in contact with; and the temperature difference.
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How does a flask work?
Vacuum between two walls of container cuts out energy transfer by conduction and convection between the walls.
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What is a heat sink?
Metal plate in-between electrical components to stop them becoming to hot.
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The greater the ________ of a object, the more ________ it temperature increases when heated.
mass of the object, the more slowly...
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The rate of tempature change of a substance when heated depends on? ________,________,________,
energy supplied to it, it's mass, specific heat capacity
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What's the unit for specific heat capacity?
joules/gram °C
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How do storage heaters store energy?
Use off-peak electricity to store energy in special bricks.
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What's the difference between heat and energy?
The hotter an object is, the faster the motion of the molecules inside it. Thus, the heat of an object is the total energy of all the molecular motion inside that object. Temperature, on the other hand, is a measure of the average heat or thermal ene
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Energy transfer from out homes can be reduced by:
loft insulation, cavity wall insulation, double glazing, draught proofing.
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What do U-values tell us?
How much energy per second passes through different materials.
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Advantages of solar heating panels?
Don't use fuel to heat water.
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Disadvantages of solar heating panels?
Expensive to buy and install.
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P1 2.1 - Using energy.
P1 2.1 - Using energy.
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Energy exists in different forms. Energy can change from one form into another form.
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When a object falls and gains speed, what happens to it gravitational potential energy and it's kinetic energy?
Gravitational potential energy decreases and it's kinetic energy increases.
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Forms of energy: ?
Chemical energy (stored in fuel (including food)) - Kinetic energy
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More forms of energy?
Gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, and elastic energy.
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What is elastic energy?
Energy transferred by a electrical current.
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What is elastic potential energy?
Energy stored in a springy object when we squash or stretch it.
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What does the conservation of energy state?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
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What types of energy does conservation of energy apply to?
All of them.
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What is useful energy?
Energy in the place we want and in the form we need it.
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What is wasted energy?
Energy that isn't useful energy.
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What do useful and wasted energy end up being transferred to?
To it's surroundings, which becomes warmer.
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Things you need to know (2):
As energy spread out, it gets more and more difficult to use for further energy transfer.
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As energy becomes less useful, the more it ________ out.
Spreads out.
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What are Sankey diagrams?
Energy transfer through a device, a diagram where we can display wasted energy.
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No machine can be more than ?% efficient.
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How can you make machines more efficient?
Reducing friction, air resistance, and electrical resistance.
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P1 3.1 Electrical Energy
P1 3.1 Electrical Energy
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4 uses of daily electrical appliances:
Lighting, heating, moving objects, and creating sound.
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Power is the rate of transfer of ________.
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Power =
Energy / time
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Effeciency =
useful power output / total power in (x100)
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Energy (transfer in Joules) = ? x ?
Power x time
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What does a electricity meter measure?
How much electricity a house/building uses. Measured in KwH.
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total cost = ? X ?
number of kW h used x cost per kW h
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What does cost effectiveness mean?
Best vaue for money
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How can you compare the cost effectiveness of a product?
Take in cost to buy it, running costs and environmental costs.
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Why has the UK banned filament bulbs?
Because low energy bulbs use much less electrical energy than filament bulbs.
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Phsycis P1 4.1 - Generating electricity
Phsycis P1 4.1 - Generating electricity
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What are electricity generators in power stations driven by?
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What three resources are burned in fossil fuel power stations?
Coal, oil and natural gas all burned for fuel.
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What 2 elements are used in a nuclear power station?
Uranium and plutonium
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What makes these better?
Release much more energy per kg for uranium and plutonium compared to fossil fuels.
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What are biofuels?
Renewable sources of energy.
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Name two bio fuels? And what can they be used to generate?
Ethanol and methane, both can be used to generate electricity.
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What is nuclear fission?
Nucleus of a uranium molecule is unstable and can split in two in the core of the nuclear reactor.
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What is the energy of the core transferred by?
A cooland, which is very hot when leaves the core, flows through a heat exchanger then back to the core.
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How is electricity generated?
Energy in coolant is used to turn water into steam in the heat exchanger. Steam turns turbines which turn electricity generators.
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Biofuels are _______ neutral.
Carbon neutral meaning the carbon it takes in is equal to the carbon released when it's burned.
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What is a wind turbine?
A electricity generator on top of a tall tower
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How do waves generate electricity?
They turn a floating generator.
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How do hydroelectric generators work?
Generators turned by water running downhill.
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What are solar cells?
Flat solid cells that convert solar energy directly into electricity.
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What do solar heating panels use + do?
Heat water directly using the suns energy.
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Where does geothermal energy come from?
Comes from energy released by radioactive substances deep inside the earth.
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What does water pumpbd into hot rocks in the ground produce?
Steam to drive turbines that generate electricity.
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Why are solar cells only good for powered products that only need low amounts of electricity/
It only converts 10% of the solar energy absored into electricity.
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Where are good places to put geothermal power stations?
Volcanoes so water can be pumped into it, to generate steam to turn a turbine.
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How do fossil fuels cause global warming/
Produce increase levels of green house gasses.
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What is a disadvantage to nuclear fuels?
Produce radioactive waste which is dangerous and difficult to dispose of.
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What's a disadvantage to renewable energy sources?
Can affect plant and animal life negatively
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Advantages of nuclear power:
No greenhouse gasses, much more energy per gram compared to fossil fuels.
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Disadvantages of nuclear power:
Used fuel rods contain radioactive waste, and a explosion could could release radioactive material over a wide area.
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Advantages of renewable energy sources:
Never run out, don't produce acid rain, don't produce radioactive waste products.
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Disadvantages of renewable energy sources: Wind turbines, solar panels, and hydroelectric plants.
Wind turbines are noise pollutant, solar panels need to cover large area, hydroelectric plants need large reservoirs of water which can effect nearby plant + animal life.
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What is the national grid?
The network of high-voltage power lines between major power stations. Distribute electricity to our homes.
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What are step up transformers?
Steps up power stations to grid voltage.
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What are step down transformers?
Used to step the grid voltage down to use in our homes to 230V.
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What does a high grid voltage do to energy loss & a system?
Reduces energy loss and makes a system more efficient.
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What are gas fired power stations?
Pumped storage stations that meet variations in demand.
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What 3 resources can meet base load demands?
Nuclear, coal and oil power.
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What 3 energy sources are all likely to contribute to future energy supplies?
Nuclear power stations, fossil fuel power stations which use carbon capture, and renewable energy sources.
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P1 5.1 Waves
P1 5.1 Waves
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What can we use waves to transfer?
Energy and information
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How do transverse waves move?
They vibrate at right angles to the direction of energy transfer of the energy.
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All electromagnetic waves are _________ waves.
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How do longitudinal waves vibrate?
They vibrate parallel to the direction of energy transfer.
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Name a example of a longitudinal wave?
Sound wave
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WHat do mechaniel waved need to travel?
They need a medium substance to travel through.
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Name two type of waves that mechanical waves can travel through:
Transverse or longitudinal waves.
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Name 3 examples of electromagnetic waves:
Light waves, radio waves and microwaves.
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What speed do electromagnetic waves travel at?
300,000 Km per second
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What is the amplitude of a wave?
The height of the wave crest.
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For any wave, what is it's frequency?
The number of wave crests passing a point in one second.
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For any wave, what's it's wavelength?
Distance from one wave crest to the next wave crest. This is the same as one wave trough to the next.
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What's the difference between a wave crest and wave trough?
Wave crest is the top of wave on graph, and the trough is the bottom below the X axis. (google a picture)
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What unit do we measure frequency in?
Hertz (Hz)
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One wave crest passing each second is a frequency of 1 Hz.
One wave crest passing each second is a frequency of 1 Hz.
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What are straight waves called?
Plane waves.
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What's the equation for wave speed?
wave length = frequency x wavelength
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How do you represent the normal on a mirrow?
Draw a line perpendicular to the mirror.
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What does the law of reflection state?
The angle of incidence = angle of reflection
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The angle of incidence is the angle between the normal and the ________?
Incidence ray
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Angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected ray and ________?
The normal
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What is the image like formed by a plane mirror?
Virtual, upright (same way up as object) and laterally inverted.
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What is refraction?
Refraction is the change of direction of waves when they travel across a boundary.
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When a light ray refracts as it goes from air to glass, the angle of refraction is ____ than the angle of _________?
Less than the angle of incidence.
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When it goes into glass to air, the angle of refraction is ____ than the angle of ________?
More than the angle of incidence.
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What is diffraction?
The spreading out of waves when they pass through a gap or round the edge of an obstacle.
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What will happen if radio waves don't diffract enough when they go over hills?
Radio and TV reception will be poor.
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What is the frequency of the normal human ear?
20Hz to 20,000 Hz.
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What are sound waves?
Vibrations that travel through a substance.
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What can soundwaves not travel through?
A vacuum as there's no particles for the sound to travel through.
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What causes echoes?
Due to sound waves reflected from a smooth, hard surface.
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What speed does sound travel at?
340 m/s
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What type of materials absorb sound?
Walls made from soft fabric as they absorb the sound.
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The greater the temperature of air, the greater the _______ speed of sound travels.
Greater the temp = greater speed that sound travels
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What causes the pitch of a note to increase?
If the frequency of the sound waves increases.
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Vibrations created in an instrument when it is played through ______ waves.
Sound waves
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How do instruments make noise?
Air inside of them vibrates.
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How can you increase the amplitude of a wave?
Increase the loudness of sound. The waves on the screen will consequently be seen as taller.
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P1 6.1 Electromagnetic Waves
P1 6.1 Electromagnetic Waves
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Name the electromagnetic spectrum in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency and energy.
Radio waves, microwaves, infra-red radiation, light, ultraviolet radiation, gamma radiation then x-rays.
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What is the wave speed equation used to calculate?
Calculate the frequency and wavelength of electromagnetic waves.
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What's the longest wavelength you will find on the electromagnetic spectrum?
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What speed do electromagnetic waves travel at?
300 million m/s
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What is the pattern between energy and frequency?
As the frequency increases, the energy of the waves increases. This is because the wave length is shorter.
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What does white light contain?
All the colours of the visible spectrum.
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Where is infrared radiation used in a home?
Carrying signals from handsets and inside optical fibres.
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What can we use microwaves to carry?
Satellite TV programmes and mobile phone calls.
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What are radio waves used for?
Radio and TV broadcasting, radio communications and mobile phone calls.
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What dangers can infrared radiation cause to humans?
Skin burns
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What is light from ordinary lamps and the sun called?
White light
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What does the wavelength and frequency effect in a wave?
How far they can go; how much they spread; and how much information they can carry.
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What are optical fibres?
Very thin transparent fibres that are used to transmit signals by light and infrared radiation.
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Why would radio stations use longer wavelengths?
So that the radio signals have a much larger range, like national stations.
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Why are optical fibres used over normal ways of transferring information?
They carry more information, light has smaller wavelengths than than radio waves so can carry more pulses.
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What is the doppler effect?
Change in observed wavelength (and frequency) of waves due to the motion of the source of waves.
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What is red-shift?
When an object moves away from an observer, its light is affected by the Doppler effect.
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The faster a distant galaxy is moving away from us, the _______ it's red shift is.
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Why are distant galaxies moving away from us?
Because the universe is expanding.
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In 1929, what did the Edwin Hubble discover?
The further away a galaxy is from us, the grater it's red-shift is.
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How did the universe start?
The Big bang - a massive explosion from a very small point.
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The universe has been _______ ever since the big bang.
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What is Cosmic microwave background radiation?
CMBR is electromagnetic radiation created just after the Big Bang.
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What can CMBR only be explained by?
The Big bang theory.
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Card 2


Infrared radiation is energy the transfer by ________ waves



Card 3


All objects emit ________ radioation


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Card 4


The ________ object, the more ________ radiation it emits in a given time.


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Card 5


What is the greenhouse effect?


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