Organisational Behaviour - week 7 leadership and managment

  • Created by: jf00632
  • Created on: 03-04-19 17:50
What was knights and willmotts definition of leadership?
• directing others through inspiration and motivation, rather than through hierarchical control’
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What was mulins definition of leadership?
• ‘…. a relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people.’
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What was yukls definition of leadership?
• the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish share objectives”
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What are the 2 different types of leadership?
assigned leadership and emergnet leadership
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assigned leadership
-- the appointment of a person to formal positions of authority within an organisation -- e.g. Department Heads; CEOs; Executive Directors
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emergent leadership
the most influential person within a group or an organisation is perceived by others through over-time communication -- e.g. some positive communication behaviours (asking other members for their opinions)
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What is management?(3)
• Allocating work tasks • Maintaining existing organizational arrangements • Coordinated through organization structure
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What is leadership? (3)
• Energizing staff with a sense of direction and commitment • Establishing/transforming organizational arrangements • Involves engaging ‘hearts and minds’
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What is the maintream approach to management?
• How to’ approach • Aim is maximizing performance • Assumes underlying consensus of values and objectives between members of society and organizations • Assumes the legitimacy of management • Focused on how to help managers meet existing goals
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What is the classical approach to management?
• Set out to overcome custom, prejudice and favouritism: • Discipline, function, social group • Belief in ‘one best way’ • E.g. Fayol’s principles of managemen
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What 5 key managerial activites does classical thinking identify?
• Planning • Organizing • Coordinating • Commanding • controlling • Legitimate source of power, right to give orders, one man command, centralisation
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The modern thinknig about maangment gives more attention to what contextual factors? (5)
• Culture • Technology • History • Customer preferences • Competitors
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what does modern thinking about management attempt to identify?
• Attempts to identify styles that ‘fit’ the context
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What kind of approach does modern thinking in management have and what enviro do they focus on?
• A more holistic approach than classical thinking • Emphasis on both internal and external environments
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Behavioural approach to management- how is it prescribed and what does it focus on and who does it appeal to?
• Classical and modern thinking is normative i.e. prescribes what ought to be done. • Focus on solutions • Often appeals to managers and students because it reduces anxiety/insecurity • Behavioural approach focuses on what managers actually do
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What managerial roles did Mintzberg’s study?
• Interpersonal: figurehead, leader, liaison • Informational: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson • Decisional: entrepreneur, resource allocator, negotiator
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What did Mintzbergs studies conclude?
• Concludes that managerial work is more complex, contingent and dynamic than classical and modern thinking suggests
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According to Mintzberg how should managerial roles be organised?
• According to Mintzberg, management roles and responsibilities should be broken down to simplify the organisation into a more coherent culture.
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How does leadership differ from management- traits approach
"class"- education, knowledge, e.c.t -• These assumptions were questioned and hence inspired the search for personality traits which assumed that leaders are a specific breed of individuals (born and not made) "great person" concept - e.g. winston
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What was druckers idea of leaders?
that leaders are born not made: “Leadership is of utmost importance. Indeed there is no substitute for it. But leadership cannot be created or promoted. It cannot be taught or learned
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mainstream approaches to leadership - Trait theory
• Aims to identify the personality characteristics of leaders • E.g. initiative, intelligence, self-assurance • Ignores relational aspects of leadership (e.g. characteristics of followers) Ignores contextual factors (e.g. nature of the task)
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What 5 dimmensions of personality did costa and mcrae come up with?
• Openness to experience Fantasy, Actions, Ideas • Conscientiousness Competence, Order, Self-discipline • Extraversion Positive emotions, Gregariousness, Warmth • Agreeableness Trust, Straightforwardness • Neuroticism Anxiety, Self-consciousnes
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What did costa and mcrae believe?
• Personality is much more important to leadership than is often assumed • It is more important than intelligence
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What was Burns idea of Transactional Leadership (Management)
• Legitimate authority and bureaucracy • Clarifies and controls process, rules. systems • Based on mutual dependence and exchange • Purpose: to engender compliance
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What was Burns idea of Transformational Leadership?
• About transforming the organization • Based on creativity and innovation • Purpose: to engender commitment
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Transformational Leadership Theory- Bass and Avolio
• Contemporary leadership theory contrasting three styles: • Transformational • Transactional • Avoidant-passive
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What is transnational leadership?
orks with teams to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change
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How did bass and avaloi highlight an effective leader?
attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help them reach their maximum potential • Moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected • Raises awareness of the key issues for the organisation •
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• Concerns followers’ achievement, growth and development • Inspires followers to trust the leader, to perform at a high level, and to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals
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What is transactional leadership?
leaders promote compliance by followers through both rewards and punishments. Through a rewards and punishments system,
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What are the dimensions of transformational leadership?
as follows
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idealised influence
• provides visions and a sense of mission • acts as role model • gains respect and trust by high standards of moral and ethical conduct
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inspirational motivation
• encourages others to raise expectation • inspires followers to commitment/engagement in shared vision • uses simple language to convey the mission
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intellectual stimulation
• stimulates others to think • encourages imagination • challenges the accepted ways of doing ways
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individual consideration
• listening to the needs of followers • provides challenges/learning opportunities • delegates to raise follower’s skills and confidence
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What are the dimensions of a transnational leader?
• Focuses on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers • Leaders issues the work, praises or criticises, rewards or punishes • Followers have little responsibility; leaders use disciplinary power or incentives to motivate employees
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transactional leader qualities (contingent award)
• leaders exchange rewards/promises rewards for results and effort
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transactional - • Management by exception (active
leaders watch their workers closley for mistake and then take action
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transactional - • Management by exception (passive
• leaders intervenes only when standards have not been met or problems have arisen
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What is the full range leadership model?
Transitional: • Laissez-faire • Management by exception • Contingent award Transformational: • Individualized consideration • Intellectual stimulation • Inspirational motivation • Idealized influence
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What are the mainstream approaches to leadership?
Contingency and situational theories- Leader success contingent on the circumstances, Situations give rise to different leadership styles E.g. democratic vs authoritarian
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What theorists does this include?
• Fielder (1967) • Hersey & Blanchard (1993) • Vroom & Jago (1988)
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Contingency approach - Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership:
• To be effective, a leader needs to adopt an approach which is appropriate to: • The task – is it structured or unstructured? • Leader-member relations - good or bad? • Position power – how much formal power does the leader have?
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What kind of leader style works best when?
• If leader-group relations are either very good or very bad, an authoritarian style works best. • If the leader-group relations are somewhere in between, a participative style works best
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contingency approach
• Blake and Mouton (1964): Task vs Relations-oriented Leadership Approach • Task oriented - production-oriented • Relations oriented – people oriented • The most effective managers are those who combine both concerns (Bass, 1990)
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Limitations of mainstream approaches
• Take for granted the prevailing form, structure and knowledge of organizations • Contingency approaches are based on questionable assumptions, such as: • Knowledge is complete and available • Goals do not vary across the organisation
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Limitations of mainstream approaches continued
• Managers and leaders do not operate out of self-interest • The external environment does not necessarily impact on economic goals
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critical agenda
• Questions how institutions become established and maintained • Focus on conflicts of interest and paradoxes that undermine efforts to control • Asks whether owner/manager/subordinate divisions are conducive to establishing trust and confidence
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critical agenda continued
• Challenges assumptions of consensus in organizations • agreement often forced or driven ‘underground’
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• Mainstream theories of leadership are supposed to enable us to identify and train leaders • Critical perspectives encourage us to challenge the common-sense associated with leadership and refute the possibility of a ‘one best way’
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conclusion continued
• Critical approaches extend an examination of management and leadership to broader societal issues of quality, justice and freedom
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Card 2


What was mulins definition of leadership?


• ‘…. a relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people.’

Card 3


What was yukls definition of leadership?


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Card 4


What are the 2 different types of leadership?


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Card 5


assigned leadership


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