Nitrogenous compounds and polymers

what are amines
they are organic compounds, derived from ammonia in which on or more hydrogen atoms in ammonia have been replaced by a carbon chain
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what are the two different types of amines
aliphatic or aromatic
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what is an aliphatic amine
the nitrogen is attached to at least one straight or branched carbon chain e.g. CH3NH2
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what is an aromatic amine
the nitrogen atom is attached to an aromatic ring e.g. phenylamine
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how can we classify amines
they be can be classified as primary, secondary or tertiary
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how do you name primary amines
if the -NH2 group is on the end of the chain you add suffix -amine to the name of the alkyl chain but if it is on any other carbon but carbon 1 then it is the prefix amino-
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how do you name secondary or tertiary amines
if they contain the same alkyl group the prefixes di- or tri- are used if two or more different groups are attached to the nitrogen atom N-the substituted derivate of the larger group
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how do amines react as bases
when amines react as bases and accept a proton a dative covalent bond is formed between the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom and the proton
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how do amines form salts
they neutralise acids e.g. propylamine reacts with HCl to from the salt propylammonium chloride
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how do you form primary amines
ammonium can acts as a nucleophile in a substitution with haloalkane and aqueous alkali is added to the product to generate an mine
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what are the essential conditions for the formation of primary amines
ethanol is used as the solvent, this prevents any substitution of the haloalkane by water to produce alcohols
excess ammonia is used. This reduces further substitution of the amine group
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how do you form secondary and tertiary amines
primary amine can react further with a haloalkane to form a secondary amine and tertiary amines can also be formed by further reaction of the secondary amine
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how do you prepare aromatic amines
it can be made by reduction of nitrobenzene and is heated under reflux with tin and HCl to form ammonium salt and then is reacted with excess sodium hydroxide
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what is an amino acid
it is an organic compound containing both amine NH2 and a carboxylic acid
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what are is the reaction of amine groups
amine is group is basic and reacts with acids to make salts
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what is the reaction of the carboxylic acid group
amino acid reacts with an aqueous alkalis such as sodium or potassium hydroxide to form a salt and water
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what is the esterification of alcohols
amino acids are easily esterified by heating with an alcohol in the presence of conc. H2SO4 and they form an ester and water
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what are zwitter ions
they are amino that have no overall charge because the positive and negative charges cancel out and each amino acid has a specific isoelectric point
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what are amides
they are products of acyl chlorides with ammonia and amines
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what is optical isomerism
it is found in molecules that contains a chiral centre
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what is a chiral centre
it is a carbon atoms that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms
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how are optical isomers drawn
optical isomers are drawn to show the 3D tetrahedral arrangement of the four different groups around the central chiral carbon atom and the other is drawn as a mirror
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what is the condensation polymerisation
it is the joining of monomers with loss of a small molecules, usually water or HCl in this type of condensation two different groups are needed
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how are polyesters made from one monomer
it can be made from monomers are joined together by ester linkages in a long chain and can be made from one monomer containing both carboxylic acids and alcohol groups or from two monomers
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what is another way to form a polyester
you can form it from two monomers each containing two functional groups
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what are polyamides
are condensation polymers formed when monomers are joined by amide linkages in a long chain
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how can polyamides be made
from one monomer with two functional groups or from or from two monomers with two functional groups
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how can polymers be hydrolysed
polyester and polyamides can be hydrolysed using hot aqueous alkalis e.g. NaOH or by aqueous acid
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what are the two different types of amines


aliphatic or aromatic

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what is an aliphatic amine


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what is an aromatic amine


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how can we classify amines


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