ICT Revision

Stages in processing data
input, processing, output
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Data entered into a system e.g. bar codes scanned
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Input turned into useful form
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Action that occurs after input processed e.g. name/price of item displayed
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Information kept for later use
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Physical objects that make up a computer system that you can touch e.g. computers, monitors, printers, connecting cable- provides input, output, processing and storage devices- need software to function
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Silicon chip that contains CPU and makes computer work/ brain of it
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Central Processing Unit- carries out calculations and does data processing that make computer work
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Piece of hardware e.g. monitor
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Microprocessor uses
Computers, control devices e.g. DVD players, washing machines, mobile phones, games consoles, photocopiers, robotic assembly lines (industry)
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Part of computer you can't see/ touch- program/ set of instructions that processor runs to carry out tasks the user requires and gives computer instructions on how to operate
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Operating systems software
Controls and manages computer e.g. Windows, Mac OS, Linux. controls hardware and software and allocates memory and processor time to each process computer runs and controls where data stored
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Applications software
Computer program designed to carry out specific tasks e.g. word processor, databases, computer games
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Main circuit board in computer can plug in other boards and built in sound and video controllers
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How to achieve best quality sound/video
If computer has separate sound and video cards rather than using ones built in to motherboard
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Dual and quad core processors
Make computer work quicker
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Interactive processor
Responds to inputs from user e.g. computers, video games
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Multi tasking
Computer carrying out several tasks at once
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Real time processing
Happens straight away in response to input from user e.g. if clothes bought from shop and now sold out, instantly says that
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Online processing
Takes place when computer has internet connection
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Multi user system
Many users can log on at once e.g. shopping website
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Internal memory: ROM
Read only memory- contains instructions that are built in during manufacture so when inside computer- read only. When computer booted up (switched on) loads instructions from ROM but computer can't write data into it
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Internal memory: RAM
Random access memory- used when computer is operating- holds programs/ data while computer switched on and lost when switched off. Increase RAM- better performance
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Input devices
e.g. mouse (point and click)/keyboard (enter letters/ numbers and shortcuts)
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Output devices
e.g. monitors (display what computer does), speakers (sound), printers (produce paper based output)
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Secondary/ backing storage
Store data/ programs- need storage that holds data when power off. e.g. Desktop computer have- hard drive, DVDs/ CDs drives, USB ports e.g. for memory sticks
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User interface
Way user interacts w/ computer (input, output devices and screen display)- operating system controls type user sees on screen
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GUI (graphical user interface)
On most computers. Has windows, icons (click on it), menus (choose from), pointers (drag/ drop items on page) (WIMP)0 computer responds to commands- easy to use and versatile
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Personalising a GUI
Change size of icons, add hyperlinks/hotspots (links to other web page/file accessed by clicking word/ image), alter display options by changing screen resolution on bitmap image, monitor display(how many dots of colour image made up) and contrast
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Menu user interface
Allow user to choose from restricted set of options- easy to use. e.g. ATMs
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Files and folders
Folder can contain subfolders- better organisation
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File path
Address for file that specifies exactly which folder it is stored in
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File extension
Code that defines what type of file it is at end of file name e.g. .doc- word processor, .xls- spreadsheet, .jpg- image
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File names
No punctuation allowed, file names should be short and shows file extension
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File sizes
Contains lots of data- large file size. Affects space used on computer hard drive, if it will fit on USB stick and how long it will take to upload online. Graphics, music, video files- large- harder to store/ transfer. Word processing- smaller
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Storing large files
Can be stored on external hard drive (some small enough to be portable- convenient for transferring large files between computers)- if hard drive too small
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Transferring large files
Emails- limit on size of attachment to send. Can transfer w/ CDs, DVDs, USB memory sticks and portable external hard drives
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Size capacities
CD- 750MB DVD- 4.7GB USB stick- 1-16GB External hard drive- 100-500GB
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Encoding data
Data changed from one form to another or replaced w/ code (shortens it) to make inputting info easier/ quicker, to make retrieving data from system easier, reduce errors and reduce disk space required to store file
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Network computers
Boot up to screen that asks for user name and password. Once logged on- can see your files and access software
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May happen to data if you switch off computer w/out closing programs. File may not then open again- data in file unreadable- can happen if data changed/ damaged so can't be loaded by original software
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Forget to log off
Files left open and anyone can access them
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Computer should be switched off. Standby- wastes energy
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Computer Freeze
Doesn't respond to software commands. Press Ctrl, Alt, Del buttons together to shut down and restart safely. Can lose changes made since last saved. Likely if computer low on RAM/ hard disk space/ lots of things opened at once
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Error messages
May occur w/ software- read carefully and follow instructions. If often- check by technician/ search on internet/email software. If w/ just one software- uninstall and reinstall it
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Storage space
If too full- system slows down and freezes more often. Delete files no longer needed and archive files not needed often but doesn't delete- copying them to removable memory, labelling and storing them e.g. removable hard drive
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If paper not loaded (load new), paper jam (switch printer off and remove jammed paper)
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Input devices: Keyboards
Standard qwerty keyboard, ergonomic keyboards (bent for wrist support and help people find typing position), concept keyboard have programmable keys e.g. restaurant- easy to use and avoid errors- restricted choices to number of options
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Moves a screen pointer and chooses options on screen. Mechanical- works by rolling ball around a surface, Optical- doesn't need mouse pad- doesn't get clogged clogged with dirt unlike mechanical mouse
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Used to speak/sing into computer. e.g. call centre operators- hands free to use computer, laptops- microphone and web cam built in- video conferences easy to set up
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Speech recognition software- converts voice input to text to be used by word processor- may confuse words that sound same
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Input:Digital cameras
Once photograph taken (can also record sound and don't need film)- stored on flash memory in camera- can look at pictures straight away and delete them, print them, load on computer, send by images by email/mobile phone, upload online
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Input: Touch Screen
Wires in screen sense when it is touched- easy to use and don't need extra devices e.g. keyboard/mouse. Used on portable devices e.g. mobile phones. Can be operated w/ stylus or fingertip
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Input:Magnetic *****
Fixed to back of plastic cards-when swiped through reader- input limited amount of data e.g. open security door, credit/debit cards
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Can fit to computers. e.g. Nintendo Wii- specialised remote input devices that use motion/pressure sensors to sense action of player and reflect in game. Domestic devices e.g. washing machines/heaters contain heat sensors to control temp reached
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Input:Automatic data capture devices
Manual devices e.g. keyboards- inexpensive and versatile but slow and easy to make mistakes when use them. Automatic data capture devices can be expensive to buy/ set up but speed up data entry and reduce mistakes so worth cost of lots of data
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Input:Bar code reader
Read printed bar codes (pattern of black lines on white background). Each bar code represents no. read when code scanned. This no. stored on database where details e.g. price can be looked up too e.g. libraries, supermarkets.
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OMR (Optical mark recognition)
MCQ sheet with blocks that are shaded when correct are scanned and scanner senses position of pencil marks and matches against correct answer to calculate mark automatically
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OCR (Optical character recognition)
Converts paper based text into computer text- can be saved/edited in word processor. Paper based documents scanned to produce picture of document and characters on paper are matched against library of letter shapes.
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Easy on printed documents but more difficult on handwritten ones- letter shapes more varied. Some systems- special forms divided into squares and each filled in w/ single letter- reduces no. of possible shapes
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Output device:Monitor
Vary in size e.g. mobile phone to TV. Image on monitor made of pixels and each one glows in particular colour to make up image. More expensive monitors- more pixels per inch of screen- more detailed display
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Laser Printers
Use powdered toner to make image. Page passes through fuser unit that heats toner up and fixes it to paper. Produce excellent quality text and prints quickly. Cheaper cost to print pages but more expensive to buy
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Inkjet printers
Spray ink onto page. Cheap to buy but ink refill in expensive
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Temporary storage areas in printer that holds data waiting to be printed. Document held in printer memory store rather than computer memory- frees computer memory up so it can continue working at good speed
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How computers produce sound. Built into computer (internal-good for low quality output) or external speakers (for high quality sound and volume e.g. music). Earphones- small speakers- useful when you don't want to disturb people
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Output:Digital Projector
Porduces large image of computer output. Connected directly to computer and displays image on large screen. Vary in brightness. More powerful projector- needed in larger rooms. Expensive, likely to fail if not shut down properly
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Pen plotter-moves pen left/right over ***** of long continuously moving paper. Can draw complex outlines but can't print large areas of colour e.g. engineering drawings Pen replaced w/ cutting blade- cuts through sheets- expensive
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Output:Control devices
Computers can send signals that control devices e.g. light, computerised arm. Actuators (device that performs action in response to signal from computer) turn computerised motors etc on or off or adjust speed
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Units of memory
Computer data- stored in binary form(1 or 0). Smallest unit- bit. Byte- 8 bits. 1 Megabyte (MB)- 1,000 Kilobyte (KB). 1 Gigabyte (GB)- 1,000MB. 1 TB (terabyte)- 1,000GB. Memory and storage on computer- measured in bytes
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Backing up
Data could be lost/damaged e.g. by faulty hardware, human error (forget to save/delete file by accident). Backup (copies of data stored in case original stolen/corrupts. Data needs to be backed up every time changed- best to store away from computer
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Storage devices:Hard drives
Store media where it isn't damp/v. hot or cold. Used in desktop computers. Stores lots of data, robust, fast, reliable. Metal disk coated w/ magnetic material and speed fast to read data. Removable (take up lots of room) or built in (local storage)
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Optical drives
CDs/DVDs- laser beams used to record/read data. useful to deliver software/films. Writable ones- used for transferring data and backups
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Flash memory
Solid state memory in them. Used in camera, MP3 players. Small and ideal to fit into portable devices e.g. laptops/transporting data but easy to lose/damage (less suitable for backup). Memory sticks(pen drives)- based on flash memory
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Magnetic cartridges
e.g. DAT tapes- back up servers. 160GB capacity and small- used for backup
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Virtual memory
Stores data that would be stored in RAM so computer has more RAM- faster
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Online storage
Some companies offer small amount for free so users buy more. Away from main computer so safer in fire/flood. Security issues- trust company storing data
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Storing and sharing photographs
Some websites allow you to store photographs online. May charge if you lose lots of storage space- can be kept private or public for other people to see
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Group of computers connected together- connects computers over world using World Wide Web (www). W/ broadband- people have high speed Internet access at low cost so businesses, family members and friends can communicate e.g. on email
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E- commerce websites
Businesses advertise their services on them- can reach more customers and sell goods internationally
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Source of entertainment e.g. playing games/downloading music and videos and source of information-research. But virus can enter and negative communication e.g. criminals can use it Network- connects computers around world w/ World Wide Web (www).
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Local Area Network (LAN)
Connects computers close together- in same building/area via cables or wireless technology
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Wide Area Network (WAN)
Connects computers far apart- network that covers larger geographical area than single building via telephone and cable networks or satellites to transmit data e.g. for large companies
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Land lines- cheap. Mobile phones- convenient and costs more to make phone calls. Can send SMS (short message service-to send texts) messages- cheaper than phone calls and can send images and videos.
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VoIP/ Internet telephone
Voice over Internal Protocol (VoIP) use broadband connection to transmit voice messages to others over Internet e.g. Skype- free calls (included in cost of broadband connection)
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Email- used for communication between business and individuals- type in message and send to email address- sent to receiver's email server and is opened- arrive quickly and cheap to send
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Fax machines
Scan paper based document and send image to other fax machine over telephone lines. Sender and receiver doesn't need computer- need fax machine and telephone line
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Internet Connection: Modems
Connected to telephone lines- modem (connects computers w/ telephone line) converts digital signal to analogue that could be transmitted over telephone signals but can't make telephone calls when connected to Internet
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Internet Connection:Broadband connections
Faster and can use phone and Internet at same time.
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Digital and Analogue signals
Digital-Signal only has two values: on or off. Analogue- signal varies continuously
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WiFi and Bluetooth
Wireless technology based on radio waves. Bluetooth- replaces cables to connect devices close together e.g. send image from phone to computer. WiFi- connects devices to communication networks
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Internet connection speed- controls how quickly can download/upload data- measured in megabytes per second. Bandwidth measures rate at which data can be transferred. Broadband-higher capacity-faster data transfer rates.High bandwidth-access more data
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Way of connecting to Internet- use mobile broadband connection. Wireless dongle- contains SIM card and connects computer to Internet when plugged into USB port when 3G signal available
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Manage computer networks. File server- manages files on network. e.g. school. Printer server- manages printers and print jobs sent to them. Web servers- store files that make a web page. Email servers- store emails to send to users when requested
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Subscriber identity module card- inserted into phone that provides a unique ID for the phone
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Entertainment system: TV and radio
Terrestrial TV- connected to aerial.Cable TV-delivered through network of underground cables. Digital TV- digital service e.g. using set top box or digital TV. Broadband TV- watch TV/ listen to radio on computer w/ broadband service
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Home entertainment
TV programmes are digital so can be stored on hard drives and recorded to watch later. Digital TV allows live TV to be paused/ resumed later
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Integrated entertainment system
Systems that combine range of devices that offer visual, musical, audio and gaming entertainment- link TV, video and music on devices at home e.g. games played on TV screen, interactive TV
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Music and film downloads
People download content from websites instead of buying music/CD/films/DVD. MP3 players- small and easy to carry around music and videos
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Track your website activity so it remembers you and can target advertisements you see based on what you've looked at. Websites stores a small text file on computer and gives it info about your activity and browser send cookies to server on websites.
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Systems life cycle
Path a new ICT system follows when being developed. Cycle as a new system is always needed to replace old and procedures followed again. E.g. if used by organisations- introduce new system/update old one
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Feasibility study
First stage when developing new ICT system. Check if it will be possible to do and project is worth starting
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Feasibility study: Gathering Information
First, find out why organisation wants new system to meet their needs e.g. cope w/ larger numbers, track progress better, open online store.
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What Information to gather
Find out who client (person wanting system) is(individual/business), what is problem, how problem handled currently (manual system, old system not good), who uses system e.g. staff, what resources available (people/IT) and time scale to complete it
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How to gather information: Interviews
Ask client. Discuss what is unclear to each person and question misunderstandings. Face to face contact- see facial expressions and body language but take long time and can get distracted
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How to gather information: Questionnaires
Can be given to many people at once- quick and cheap to produce/administer, can be answered anonymously and completed at convenient time. Closed questions- answers limited and response given from options. Open question- person can give any answer.
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Questionnaires:Sample size
No. of people questionnaire given to. Bigger sample size -more reliable results but costs more and longer to collect/ analyse
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Paper based Questionnaires
Easy to produce but results have to be entered onto computer manually
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Online Questionnaires
Can be linked to database so responses captured automatically- faster and reduces errors. If it only has closed questions, OMR forms can collect data. OCR forms can collect if responses written letter by letter in squares on form
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Useful to watch existing system working- can make decisions on what is happening and what needs to be fixed. Answers from users may be biased- take things for granted after using for long time so you may notice things not discussed by users
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Feasibility report
Sums up what you have found out: if system is feasible, how to produce it, if cost fits budget, if system can be finished on time, how to judge if final system is successful
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States what system needs to achieve in more detail: what data needs to be input, what needs to be produced, processing needed to do this, hardware/software available, skill level of users (training needed), performance criteria to judge end product
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How system is going to do what it needs to and how it will be constructed. Completion time set for each task so overall system finished in time to meet deadline
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System design
Consider how system will work and what user interface will be
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Functional design
Decide what software package needed to build system and then decide how to use the functions it provides to produce efficient outcome. Content, layout, formatting need to be considered
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Functional design:Spreadsheets
Sheet for each page shows which cells contain the text, numbers, and formulae and what they are and what they do, validated cells and conditional formatting also shown
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Functional design:Websites
Sheet for each page of site that shows objects on them and how sheets are linked. produce list of files that will be linked in and where they will be stored
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Interface design:Hardware
User interface controls how user will interact w/ system. Involves output and input devices they will use to match user's needs and screen layout they will see
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Interface design:Screen layouts
Suitable for user. e.g. bright colours/pictures/little text for young child.
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Interface design:Screen layouts health and safety
When designed system that will be used for long time- consider health and safety of user- colours/font/font size- screen easy to read and doesn't tire eyes, easy to use, reduce risk of RSI- less scrolling around screen, avoid typing in lots of text
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Design sheets
Made for all screen in system showing sizes, colours of objects and explain what each object does
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Testing plan
Made to ensure system is fit for purpose, works, easy to use and meets user's needs- what needs to be tested and when testing is done, how and data used decided.
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Testing for different softwares
Spreadsheet- all data displayed correctly/ formulae and validation work. Websites-spelling/grammar mistakes, hyperlinks work, pages load fast enough/display at different resolutions
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Testing for different softwares
Database-searches produce correct results, validation works, forms/reports work, all info displayed correctly. Presentation- load/run correctly,contain correct info, text/graphics sized well, correct timings, suitable for target audience
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By end of design phase
List of tasks that must be done and deadline for them, set of designs to show how system will be built, testing plan- tests carried out, data used for them and expected results
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Ensures data is sensible and in context of system
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System built following plan for construction. Each feature tested against testing plan. Designs may need to be changed as they may not work or better way to do it- must be documented. Working system should be done by end
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Systems testing
Testing taken place as system implemented so mistakes can be corrected. Record kept of testing carried out and results record. If test fails and changes made- documentation needed. User must also test the system
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User training and documentation
Users trained to use system according to amount of skills they already have. Documentation- shows how system works and its structure so if changes needed, can be understood e.g. formulae detail on spreadsheets
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Deciding if system fit for purpose. Performance criteria matched to end results to see if implementation- successful. If not met- reasons why examined, what can be done. How system can be developed in future/improve new system
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Performance criteria
Levels of performance finished product should have
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Self evaluation
Assess how well you completed task. Identify strengths and weaknesses to improve future performance. Be realistic and tell truth- more useful
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Monitoring and maintenance
System monitored to ensure it continues to perform well. May need to be maintained- new errors found, criteria may change, user may want new feature. E.g. w/ commercial software- anti virus software updated, operating systems for new hard/software.
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The end of the systems life cycle
Eventually, client may decide to design/replace system so cycle repeats
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Information sources: Web based
Internet-lots of info but not always accurate/true. Podcasts/blogs/wikis/online databases/websites- can be from professional organisations or any individual. Wiki- anyone can add facts
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Information sources: CDs and DVD-ROMs
Good source of accurate info- have been checked before published. Easier to search than paper based books. These sources may not be up to date /frequently updated
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Information sources: E-book
Electronic book
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Information sources:Magazines and newspapers
Useful. National newspapers give national and international info. Specialist magazines available on many topics Local newspapers- find out about neighbourhood e.g. suppliers and events
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Check for good quality information
Compare info w/ other source (check it is accurate/not biased), url (web address)- see who created info on website, check publication date- ensure info is up to date
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Applications software
Software that enables you to write letter, database, spreadsheet, web browsing, animated presentation, poster, create website etc. Each type is designed to carry out specific task
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Word processor
e.g. Microsoft Word, OpenOffice Writer. Creates text document e.g. letters, essays
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Desktop publishing software
Microsoft Publisher, Adobe InDesign. Combines graphics and word processing tools/text to create professional looking documents e.g. posters, leaflets
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Presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint, GoogleDocs Presentation. Creates slideshows- text, graphics, video, sound used. Viewed on computer or projected on large screen for training, teaching, selling products.
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Graphics software
Photoshop, GIMP
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Web design software
Adobe Dreamweaver, Serif Webplus. For individuals and companies. Purpose- tell visitors about a person or company's products/services so must be interesting, info easy to find, eye catching.
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Generic features of application software
Help (provides assistance how to use applications software- online and can be installed on computer), Edit text size, Copy (copies selection to clipboard), Cut (deletes selection and copies), Paste (inserts contents of clipboard)
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Open source software
Software freely available for people to use- free w.g. Linux operating system- free to download and use, edit and view code. Free, can be developed in collaborative way-rapid addition of new features and fast fixing of bugs, can be customised
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Proprietary Software
Paid to use and not given access to coding(can't edit code) e.g. Microsoft Windows. Expensive but developers provide good service/customer support, software has automatic updates, company responsible for legality of code so it doesn't harm computer
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Locally installed applications
e.g. Microsoft Windows- installed locally on computer. User has more control as software locally stored, can be used offline but large one off cost, users have to download regular software updates, take up computer memory
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Hosted (web based) applications
Software that runs on central servers and accessed online e.g. Google Docs.
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Hosted applications advantages
Low starting costs (charge monthly subscription fee or free), software updates don't need to be installed by user, automatically backed up as data stored online, can access data from anywhere/any PC
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Hosted application disadvantages
Need Internet connection/online, application runs slowly if slow Internet connection, lack of security and control over stored data
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Similarities and differences of Word Processors and DTP
Edit text, columns, spelling and grammar checker- perform similar tasks but word processor less professional and DTP deals w/ images better
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Multimedia presentation
Contains combination of text, audio, images, animation and video
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Electronic bulletin board
Gives short presentation informing people of what may be happening, events etc. Slides automatically changes every few seconds
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Interactive presentation
Presentation affected by user input e.g. clicking button
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Common features of all Presentation software
Insert slide (Add new slide to presentation), enter/edit text (Titles, content, fonts, sizes), Insert pictures (add photos, diagrams, images to slide), insert buttons (Add buttons to slides, performing actions), create hyperlinks (link slides)
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Graphics production and image manipulation
Create/draw/edit images e.g. cropping photo, changing filter, resize image to reduce file size to send by email, airbrushing on models. Features-brush, airbrush, shading, text box, layering. Image manipulation also uses Photoshop
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Process that changes appearance of image to create effect e.g. blur, pixelate, B&W
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Collection of web pages linked together by hyperlinks. Most have home page (updated regularly to reflect current events/new products- grab user's attention), some have logins for accounts, order pages- place orders online, also additional hyperlinks
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Template/master page
Websites have these- majority of web pages based on this. Contains a menu bar, company name and logo- will be the same on every page
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Application software- creates animation effects/interactivity for websites e.g. moving icon, short movie etc. Creates effects inserted into websites created by other software e.g. Adobe Flash
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Publish website on internet
After designing and building website pages offline, view in web browser to check appearance and if hyperlinks work, upload website to online server (posting website)- done by publishing to your web space (may be free w/ internet provider)
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Web design software codes websites in HTML (hypertext mark-up language) e.g. in Dreamweaver Design view shows how final page will look in web browser(aka WYSIWYG) and Code view- HTML
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What you see is what you get- describes software that shows user something similar to end result while document being edited
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Areas of page that change when mouse hovers over/clicks them. Can be invisible
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Why would you edit HTML?
Delete unnecessary code editor has added (reduces file size) and add HTML code (easier for search engines to track website)
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Applications software for audio, DVD, video players
e.g. Windows Media Player, RealPlayer- play music/video. Have play, pause, forward, rewind, volume adjustment and mute
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Applications that play music allow you to create a playlist (list of songs selected from a library of music- software plays it in order user specifies). Playlist can be burned to CD, saved for later etc
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Music downloads
Music transferred from online website to local computer e.g. Apple iTunes, Amazon MP3- pay to download music instead of on CD
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Multimedia content (song/film) played while still being downloaded as music/video files quite large. e.g. YouTube uses streaming but if you watch file faster than it is downloaded, file may stop and take time to catch up
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Transferring data between applications software
Text/graphics/video transferred from website to presentation/DTP/word processor. Files on applications software have specific file type e.g. spreadsheet-.xls file extension
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Transfer a file created in one applications software to one currently open
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Transfer file from one currently open software to other one
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Types of file transfer
Word processing documents-.doc- can be saved as .html and edited it web design. Photoshop images-.psp-exported as .jpg into DTP,presentation, word processor. Spreadsheet-exported as .csv opened in word processor
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Designing documents using accepted layout
Use accepted layouts when creating document to help people read/understand documents easily, fit for purpose and relevant to audience.
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Rules about document formats: Printed letters
Contain address of recipient and sender, date, sign off in specific place on page
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Rules about document formats: Posters and flyers
Simple, short title, clear message, not too many colours, fonts, effects- easy to read
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Rules about document formats: Web page
Clearly labelled (know quickly what it is about), navigation bar (in same location each page)
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Rules about document formats: Presentations
Not too much text, images/multimedia content to add interest but not too crowded
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Applications software that store numerical data in rows and columns- analysed w/ formulae/calculations e.g. income/expense projections for companies to analyse their performance. Numbers processed and shown graphically if needed- easy to read.
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Formatting features for spreadsheets
Make it more presentable/easy to read: font size/style, text alignment, merging cells, cell shading/borders, gridlines, column row/width
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Data and Information
Data- raw figure/words w/ no context. Information- data that is given a meaning
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Spreadsheet data types
Data type- type of data stored in cell- text, currency, number, date, percent, option buttons
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Cell references
Each cell's unique address- letter specifies its column and number represents row e.g. B4. Range of cells shown by- D11:D15
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Formulae and functions
Perform automatic calculations on numbers entered on spreadsheets so if something is changed, all cells automatically update- mathematical operations performed on value in cell
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Number formats
How data in cell displayed e.g. no. of decimal places
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SUM function
Adds all specified numbers together- faster than using simple addition e.g. SUM(D12:D18)- quick and efficient
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MIN, MAX, AVERAGE functions
Find minimum(smallest value), maximum(largest value) and average value of list of numbers. Format- MIN/MAX/AVERAGE(first value:last value)- first and last cell reference
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ROUND function
Rounds number to specified no. of digits e.g. ROUND(D1,2)- round no. in cell D1 to 2dp
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ROUNDUP function
Rounds no. up e.g. ROUNDUP(D1,2)- round up cell D1 to 2 digits
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RANK function
Gives position of a number in a sequence of numbers e.g. RANK(D4,D2:D9)-gives where D4 ranks in range of numbers given
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COUNT function
Counts no. of cells containing numbers e.g. COUNT(D1:D10)- how many cells in this range are numbers
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LOOKUP function
Looks up number in an array e.g. LOOKUP("apple", A2:A6,B2:B6)- looks for apple in column A cells 2-6 and shows in column B
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IF function
Value in cell will depend on answer to a question- one value if answer is yes and another if no. e.g. IF(E11
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Relative cell reference
Program doesn't store cell address but the position of cell relative to cell containing the formula e.g. E19
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Absolute cell reference
Actual location of cell is stored and unaffected by location of cell containing formula e.g. $E$19
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Sort feature in spreadhseets-sorts into specific order e.g alphabetically, descending/ascending order of size of a number
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Graphs and charts
Pie chart, scattergram, bar chart. Must be labelled properly and needs a title, key explaining what each colour/symbol represents, axis titles, axis scale (appropriate)
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Model situations- user can change values and see effect e.g. change in profit. Spreadsheet answers problems of different scenarios to choose best one by using trial and improvement and changing inputs to match needs
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What if
Steps in modelling process/ what if questions: reduce/increase a variable, check result, continue until result is correct
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Stores data/records in table in efficient and organised way so it is easily and quickly retrieved- useful- structured collection of records
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Database data types
AutoNumber(automatically generated number for each record e.g. for key fields to ensure each is different), Number-decimal/integer numeric values, Text-short values of numbers and letters, Currency-money, Dat/time, Object/Image e.g. photo file
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Database data types
Logical/Boolean- yes/no fields, Limited choice e.g. drop down list- limited values, Memo- lots of text/number e.g. for Notes/Description field
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Flat file database
Only one table of data in database. Problem- duplication of information (data redundancy-same data stored more than once in table)- time consuming and waste of file space and greater chance of errors
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Fields and records
Fields- column headings in database tables. Records- rows in database- hold all information about one subject
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Relational databases
Overcome problem of data redundancy- use more than one table and link them- fewer entry errors and reduced storage space taken up
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Data validation
Reduces data entry errors- checks data entered passes certain rules. Validation- checking the data is sensible. Many types of data validation
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Presence check
Stops field being left blank- can't continue until user enters value
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Look-up list
Checks data entered matches one from list of pre set values
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Type check
Checks a field contains data of same type or in specific format or length
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Range check
Checks data falls within two specified values
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Check digit
In fields w lots of numbers, carries out calculation based on numbers entered and checks result is as expected e.g. last number on bar code- check digit. If wrong- scanner beeps to warn operator of problem
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Data validation accuracy
Even if data passes validation check, can still be wrong. Verification checks if it is right/wrong e.g. checking data against source document, enter data sets twice and compare e.g. enter password twice- entries compared to ensure no typing error
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Key fields/Primary key
Unique field so no two records have same entry- uniquely identifies each record in table
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Data can be entered directly into tables but more convenient to use input forms. Easier to enter data, data can be entered into more than one table w/ single form, forms have layout options-look more friendly, extra text added- more user friendly
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Sorting and filters
Can sort data in tables and reports in ascending or descending order using more than one field. Filtering- easy to select information on one type of data e.g. queries only show filtered part of fields according to criteria
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Searching a database
Can find specific information. Set search criteria to allow database to quickly search records of database and return result/records you want e.g. finding all people who have library fines- need to design query
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Search criteria
Equals(=), less than(), not equal to()
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Can contain data from one or multiple table in database. Create report- select fields to show and order and layout results presented in. Reports can be linked to searches, filters, sorts- present data from them- easy to understand. e.g. people < 16
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Advanced search criteria
Database searches many fields in database e.g. find all females from gender fields who are over 18 in age field
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Archiving data
Some databases- data held is constantly increasing so it hods large amount of data no longer needed. Solution- archive data- run report that automatically archives off data that matches specific criteria e.g. orders over than 5 years
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Mail merge
Data stored on database transferred to another type of applications software e.g. word processor.
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Mail merge in context
Email for customers who have placed orders- name and contact details stored in database automatically linked to word processor- creates letter automatically
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Communication online
Email account, social networking site profiles, personal blogs, forums
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Web/Internet browser
Software used to view web pages e.g. Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox.
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Features of Web browsers
Stop button-stop browser from loading page, Refresh-reload current web page to update, Home page-web page address browser automatically navigates to when opened, Web address-type it in address bar to display the web page that has address
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Pop ups
Additional browser windows opened by web page currently being viewed. Some desirable and others contain advertisements. Web browsers can block pop ups/ask permission before opening
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Favourites and bookmarks
Web addresses can be saved in a list and chosen from web browser menu to save time typing. No limit of amount and can be organised into folders
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Search engines
e.g. Google, Yahoo! Search. Search through all pages on Internet and make central index of words/sentences on each web page. Enter string of words, search engine looks them up in index and creates list of websites w/ words in it.
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Why different search engines have different results
Use different methods for indexing websites. Some- when entering search criteria into search engine- comes up w/ websites that obtain those words most
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Multiple search criteria
Specify results. AND search- type in terms, NOT-minus sign before search term-doesn't show up, OR- or put between 2 terms, Exact phrase-search terms in quotes("), Wildcard-asterick*before + after term-e.g.cook*-show word begin w/ cook e.g. cooking
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Sites where users can create/edit content e.g. Wikipedia-online encyclopaedia- anyone can log on and add content to existing page/create new page
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Internet service providers (ISP)
Company that connects people to Internet. Charge months fee for Internet access. e.g. dial up connection, cable, wireless, broadband and can provide services e.g. web mail, website hosting, phone line, digital TV
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Web mail
ISPs may provide them- free email address and online account. Can log on and check messages. Account has limited amount of storage- store emails up to limit
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Hosting a website
ISPs may provide free web space- can create website and upload to web space online. ISP gives details needed to post web pages
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e.g. Hotmail, Gmail. Allow users to write, send and receive emails and attached files(attachments) and keep address book of contacts. To send email- have email account and receiver's account
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Features of an email:From
From:can send/receive email from more than one account so need to specify which you are sending email to- enter email address into From field
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Features of an email:To
Can enter one or more email address to send message to- write in To field. Separate addresses w/ comma/semi colon
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Features of email:Bcc (blind carbon copy)
Copy of email sent to email address in Bcc but none of the other recipients will be able to see that it has been sent to them- to keep privacy so everyone doesn't know address
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Features of an email:Cc (carbon copy)
Sends copy of email to someone not directly affected by message but who you want to be aware of it
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Features of an email:Subject
Makes clear what email is about- easy for recipients to find email
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Features of an email:Attachments
Only text can be included in main body of email so other file types need to be attached e.g. images, videos etc. Have to click to open and download them
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Features of email:Reply
When you read email, can reply. Click reply-opens blank, new email to send reply to email address
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Features of email:Forward
Click forward- copy will be forwarded to address of choice- can also add own comments
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Features of email:Reply to All
Send email to all email addresses in From, To and Cc fields
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POP(Post Office Protocol)
Language used to send email from online server to computer
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SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
Language used to send mail from computer to online mail server e.g. Microsoft Outlook
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Address book
Where you can store email addresses of contacts on emails. Can easily look up person emailing in address book when creating email and select address instead of typing it. Can add new contacts, edit contacts with changed details and delete contacts
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Mailing lists
Time consuming to type in long list of emails every time and can make typing error so one person- no email. If regularly send emails to same group-create mailing list of those addresses to save time- select list from address book- edit to add/delete
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Email storage
Emails organised in folders, stored + backed up. Inbox- received email, Sent-copies of emails sent, Drafts-emails started but not sent, outbox-completed emails not sent yet e.g. if offline, junk mail/spam-ISP puts in, Deleted-emails recently deleted
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Junk mail and spam
Mail sent in bulk to user that didn't request it e.g. companies advertising products/organisations trying to gather personal info to get money. Email providers and junk checkers automatically scan for spam and send to junk mail- not in inbox
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Spam filters
Block known spammers and messages and redirects junk to spam folder- not entirely accurate rules- some genuine mail may go to junk. Prevent by creating list of safe senders. Never reply to spam as they will use address even more.
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Instant messaging
Know if recipient is online and what you send will be seen as soon as sent. Can have text conversation in real time in online (don't know if receiver online in email)
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Web logs (blogs)
Websites where people/organisations post comments on a subject or recent event, write entries etc. Most recent entry displayed at top and date marked. Other features: vote
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Personal blogs
Online diary w/ photos, videos of person's life
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Corporate blogs
Web pages w/ updates on what company is doing e.g. recent events, store openings to keep customers updated and get their opinions from comments on posts
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News and views
Update people w/ news on certain topic e.g. BBC has blogs on climate change. Constantly updated w/ new findings and people subscribe to keep up to date w/ new entries. Readers can post comments
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Micro blogs
e.g. Twitter- users write short updates on what they are doing (tweets)- short entries make up blog of someone's life throughout day. Can subscribe to other's to keep up to date w/ what friends, celebrities etc are doing
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Social networking sites
Individuals and organisations have profile page to contact others based on friendship, common interest, similar background e.g. Facebook, Instagram. Create online profile- web page for info about you e.g. name, town, photos etc.
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Linking with others on social media
FInd other profiles- search user's unique username, name or info in their profile
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Communicating with people in your network
People you follow-part of your network- can send message to them- see when they log on, send instant message- see they are online so they reply instantly, send status updates- what you're doing, opinion and people read it and comment on profile
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Uploading files to profile
Can upload photos/videos. May have to download plug in (software application you download on Internet to enable a specific feature of web browser e.g. Adobe Flash plug in offered on sites that have Flash objects)- find and upload photo/video file
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Dangers of social media: Identity theft
Giving personal info online is risky. People pretend to be someone else and post info that damages their reputation or try to connect w/ their friends to get their personal info- identity fraud/theft
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Select who can see info about you/profile online e.g. people in network by changing privacy settings
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Dangers of social media: Viruses and hacking
People hack into social media sites and create viruses to get personal information e.g. credit car details- ask users to download file which infects computer
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Forums/message board
Online discussion website- users post comments in open conversation e.g. discuss common interest- news, queries about softwares
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Downloaded file from Internet to play on portable audio player/computer. Purposes-content that is updated frequently e.g. education, business, recreation. Can be only audio or have video too
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Podcast vs normal music/video downloads
Podcasts- part of series that is downloaded regularly e.g. weekly/daily. Software e.g. Apple iTunes detects when new podcast in series available and automatically downloads it- select which podcasts to download by subscribing. Free or paid for
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Data logging
Collecting data over period of time using sensors- red data into computer that stores and processes results and takes action depending on data values e.g. monitor temp of greenhouse.
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Manual vs Computer Data Logging
Computers access location humans can't and read data faster
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Detect physical quantities e.g. heat/sound. Type of sensor depends on physical quantity logged
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Heat sensor (thermistor)
e.g. central heating- temp kept within set range
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Movement sensor/Infrared heat sensor
e.g. burglar alarm- detect people in room
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Process of data logging
Takes place over period of time- data from sensor recorded at set time intervals. Can be done manually or on computers. Logging period-total length of time data is being recorded. Logging interval-lenght of time between recording each measurement
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Advantages of computerised data logging
Can run 24hrs a day, all year, cheaper than employing people, accurate and consistent readings, eliminate human error, take readings w/ small logging intervals-fast, placed in inaccessible locations for humans-dangerous areas
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Advantages of computerised data logging
Immediately analyse data and take action if needed, automatically present readings as graphs/tables, log data from many sensors at same time
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Disadvantages of computerised data logging
Buying/setting up automatic logging-expensive, faulty sensors may not be noticed-incorrect readings, if equipment fails- new readings not taken/existing data lost
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Applications software:Control software
Programmes robots and devices w/ instructions that act remotely/automatically e.g.automatic doors, traffic lights, video games
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The turtle
Don't use external input/sensors. Control software gives instructions to on screen or real life robot (turtle)- allow it to move around in specific pattern
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Instructions for turtle pen to make it move around and sketch a diagram
Makes pen move: UP-pen lifts up, DOWN, pen goes down on paper, FORWARD1-pen moves forward 1 square, BACK-moves back, LEFT-moves left, RIGHT-moves right
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Control feedback loop
In control systems- robot/device receive input from sensor then take action. Input to system from sensors, Processing-data compared against set values (from storage) and saved in memory and recorded, Output-response of system-keep data as desired.
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Control feedback loop
Output affects input-system feedback (way output influences input e.g. heater switched on if too cold- affects temp, autopilot systems
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Mobile technologies:Laptops/notebook computers
Personal computer small enough to carry- built in keyboard, mouse and screen. Come in different sizes, weights but all have fold down flat screen
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Mobile technologies:Smart mobile phones/palmtops/PDAs-personal digital assisstants
Offer features on computer- Internet access, email, calendar, contacts address book, applications software e.g. word processor, large memory to store data, digital camera
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Wireless Applications Protocol (WAP)
Allows mobile phone users to view phone friendly versions of websites on phone screen. WAP website- simpler and different layout to computer
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Covergence of mobile technologies
Technology combined into single devices-computer, phone, TV, satellite navigation system-used to be separate. Now these technologies are all in one package- e.g. Apple iPhone
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Satellite navigation systems
Used by drivers for routes- use global positioning system (GPS)- has 24 hrs satellites above Earth-receiver gets signal from them- if it can pick them up, calculates precise location and plans route. Touch screen/voice commands-easy for driving
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Data Protection Act 1998
Protects privacy of people's personal information- data holders must ask people's permission before passing data to anyone else and only authorised people can access them
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Data subjects
People about whom data is stored
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Data users
People/organisations that store personal data
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Information Commissioner
UK-government department that enforces DPA. Data users have to register w/ them and state data they hold, what they intend to use it for and how long keep it stored and agree to DPA rules
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Data Protection Act Principles
Fairly and lawfully processed, processed for limited purposes, adequate relevant and not excessive, accurate and up to date, not kept longer than necessary, processed in line w/ rights, secure, not transferred to other countries w/out protection
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Data controller
Person in organisation responsible for enforcing DTA rules and ensures they are followed
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Rights of data subjects
See what data held about them, correct inaccurate info, ask organisation not to process info, refuse to give data for direct marketing, complain to IC if data controller breaks rules, claim compensation to courts if damage done by this
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Exemptions of data subject rights
DPA does't apply if:national security may be put at risk, information must be available to public, info for personal use in families, info needed to prevent/detect crime, info needed to collect taxes
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Computers should be protected from them. Pieces of computer code that can reproduce by copying themselves to other files- can cause damage to stored data/stop programs running properly/delete or corrupt data. Sent as email attachments/web links
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Computer Misuse Act 1990
Prevents unauthorised access to computer data
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Accessing computer system not authorised to use- offence
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Levels of offence in CMA
Level 1:Accessing computer system, software, data you know you're not authorised to use. Level 2:Unauthorised access w/ intent to commit further offence e.g. theft.Level 3:Unauthorised modification of computer material e.g.adding virus/deleting data
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Personal data guardianship code
BCS (British Computer Society)- helps people understand their individual responsibility when they store personal data. The code has principles of accountability, visibility, consent, access, stewardship and responsibility
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Copyright and Patents Act 1988
Copyright legislation protects intellectual property e.g. books, music, software, images. Material w/ copyright symbol next to it can't be used/reproduced w/out permission. Buy software package-buy license to use it
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Intellectual property
Ideas or creations e.g. software, music that can be protected by copyright
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Software license
Legal agreement stating how piece of software may be installed and used- rules have to be agreed to for use of software. DIsplayed at beginning of installation procedure
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Types of software license: Single user license
Install and use software on one computer
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Types of software license: Site license
e.g. on educational packages. School can install as many copies as they want but only in the school
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Types of software license: Shareware license
Available on free trial at first for limited period of time or some functions removed. Pay for it to remove restrictions
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Types of software license: Public domain software/freeware
Install and use with no payment
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Copying information (intellectual property) from someone else and presenting as own work e.g. from Internet-cut and paste is wrong- must right in own words. If info marked w/ quote from another source- acceptable
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Some material is subject to copyright- not allowed to use without permission of owner- legal right given to person who creates document
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Music downloads
Legal to upload music created by yourself online so other people can listen and download it. But music sold commercially-subject to copyright-buy right to play for personal use but not to pass it on to others even for free
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Peer to peer site (P2P site)
Website where people upload music/video so others can download illegally. Illegal to upload commercially bought music onto them, allowing people to download it. Illegal downloading-artist and company that paid to produce it don't get paid back.
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Music industry prosecute people who do this and ISPs warn users/close Internet account of people who continually download illegal content
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ICT in industry
ICT development-impact on way businesses run. Manufacturing industries-computer control used to design products e.g. w/ CAD and are produced w/ CAM machine.
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ICT in industry
Robotic arms -move goods on automated production, track progress of goods and stock levels of components in production process can be monitored-items re ordered automatically when fall below min. level so correct amount of stock available
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CAD (Computer aided design)
Computer produces drawings of design on screen and for automatic calculation of weights, strengths etc
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CAM (Computer assisted manufacture)
Uses output from CAD packages and computers control tools that manufacture/assemble products
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Effects on products and jobs of people who make them
Products more standardised-expensive to set up production line so more cost effective to make large amount of one product . Less workers needed- jobs de- skilled for automated production but design and setup of production- skilled
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Effects on products and jobs of people who make them
However, some products not suitable for automated manufacture so handmade goods still valued
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ICT in commerce
Way people buy/sell things changed. E-commerce grown-most high street shops have e commerce website and some retailers no shop e.g. Amazon- reduces costs-only need warehouse-cheaper to rent than stores.
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Electronic commerce-Internet used for selling goods/services. Convenient for shoppers and disabled- buy products from home and don't travel- saves time and money. Easier to find cheapest price online. B
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Disadvantages of E commerce
Pay delivery and be at home when goods delivered, can't check quality of goods/try them on so danger of not being good enough on arrival. Must choose reliable supplier or goods may not arrive
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Working from home using networked computer rather than travelling to work every day. Powerful computer networks allow this- log onto company network on computer at home
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Teleworking advantages
- Suits people w/ disabilities, care for children or elderly parent, reduces time and money spent on travelling to work, reduces traffic-help environment, don't have to live near work, less office space needed-costs reduced for businesses
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Teleworking disadvantages
Less social, home workers feel isolated, less able to discuss work problems, get distracted at home e.g. TV, friends- harder to set aside time to concentrate on work but computer based work easier to monitor for manager-discipline but causes stress
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Social/personal effects of ICT: Individuals
Changed way people communicate-used to be letters, in person/on land line telephone. Now- mobile phones, Internet, personal blogs, instant messaging, social networking sites-people keep in touch and update people on their lives.
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Social/personal effects of ICT: Celebrities/Politicians
Use social networking sites to keep profile in public eye/put across their message
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Negative social effects of ICT
Social networking sites create pressure to have lots of friends- teens may accept people they don't know to gain followers. More difficult to relax and get away from pressures of daily life-colleagues can email/phone people on holiday about problems
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Computer access and ICT skills
Important in employment market.
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Computers for Pupils scheme
UK allows disadvantaged secondary school children to improve education/life skills-get computer. Local authorities identify eligible schools in their area.
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One Laptop per Child scheme
Developing countries-less access to computers so disadvantaged to wealthy country children. Scheme researching ways to provide computer access to these children
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Accessibility of computers for disabilities
Visual impairment-adjusted, bigger display-zoom settings, changing colour and fonts-easier to se Websites read out text. Scan and speak systems-scan paper doc+read out loud-visually handicapped person,eye tracking device-more independent
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National database: DNA database
UK police-DNA samples for analysis from crime scenes and from people in custody but DNA of people questioned but not charged w/ crime is stored-breach of human rights-storage of innocent people DNA now illegal. Helps police solve crimes
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National database:National identity cards
Some countries-compulsory citizens hold an identity card as proof of identity. UK- cards compulsory for foreign people in UK but voluntary for citizens. Use biometric data from fingerprints/faces to identify people- improve national security
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National database:National identity cards
Less chance of terrorist attacks but invasion of privacy and cards have a charge-unfair and waste of taxpayers' money
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National databases: Security and Privacy
Storing data on large scale-concern about privacy and security. Data may be lost by Gov., identity theft if criminals get info, personal data e.g. from NHS could be used for other purpose
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Surveillance society: CCTV (Closed circuit television)
Unmanned, remotely mounted video camera system transmits live pictures to TV screen where activity monitored and recorded- crime prevention measure. Produce high resolution pictures e.g. of car number plates/facial recognition of criminal
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Disadvantages of CCTV
Invasion of privacy, doesn't reduce crime dramatically
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Advantages of CCTV
Stops criminals/reduces crime
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Surveillance society: MI5
Apply for warrant- allows them to monitor phone calls, email, web browsing- people spied on. Could be done on everyone in country to stop crime and terrorism but unethical and invasion of privacy and security
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ICT to monitor environment
Stores and processes lots of info quickly. Help explain what is happening to climate, predict natural disasters so people can prepare etc.
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Sustainability and recycling
Computers used to design energy efficient buildings and monitor and control energy use, observe and control consumption of gas, electricity and water and show where organisations are wasting resources/raw materials
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Impact of ICT on populations
Easier for people around world to communicate/trade and find out news from other parts of world-gov.s no longer have control on what country knows e.g.propaganda in wartime no longer possible- videos sent back from war quickly but some still control
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Health issues for computer users
Can be short term e.g. headache or spinal damage- long term- damages health by sitting in same position etc
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Eye problems
Focus on screen for long time- eye strain and headaches- also if screen unclean/ has glare from reflected light. Adjust screen brightness to suitable level and have regular eye tests to ensure eyes are healthy
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Wrist problems (RSI)
Using mouse/keyboard for too long can cause upper limb disorder- RSI (repetitive strain injury)-causes pain in finger, shoulder and wrist joints. Wrists must be in correct position/ a wrist rest for keyboard to reduce risk
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ICT jobs can cause stress e.g. in call centres where employee's work is monitored in great detail and operators expected to answer call quickly and can be blamed for complaint more easily. If target calls set too high-people may work through break
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Back and neck problems
Sitting in same position for long time/bad posture-sit correctly, adjustable chair-support back, eyes level w/ top of monitor, feet rest comfortably on floor, monitor tilts-find comfortable position, workstation-enough space for other equipment
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Back and neck problems
Spine can be damaged permanently- help by taking regular short breaks/changing activity
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Health and safety at work: Tripping
Offices have lots of electrical equipment- cables can run long distances to reach power sockets and cause trips. Place equipment in safe place and have extra power sockets installed
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Health and safety at work: Heat- can cause equipment malfunction and hot environment
Computers give off heat so room could get too hot. Open windows, use fans, install air conditioning (expensive and not good for environment but best way to maintain temp), switch computers off instead of standby(save money) -keep room cool
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Electrical safety-Checks and Power loss
Electrical equipment must be checked regularly to prevent fires and damaged cables/plugs should be reported for repair/replacing. Fire extinguishers available for accident w/ CO2 in. If power supply fails-computers damaged/data lost/damaged. Get UPS.
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UPS (uniterruptable power supply)
Contains a battery and can protect computer by maintaining power until computer safely turned off and protects against voltage surges
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Electrical safety-Voltage surges
If voltage of electricity supply suddenly increases-surge-damages equipment. Surge protector plug and UPS protect computers
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Computers-kept clean-no food/drink near it and users should wash hands regularly and use specialist keyboard wipes to clean keyboard before touching it
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Monitors positioned so they don't suffer from glare and reflection-eye strain e.g. blinds-block direct sunlight/diffused lighting-less glare/reflection than normal tubes
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Staying safe: Online game sites
Users can chat when playing (more fun) and create username and avatar characters to play (keeps people safe-don't give real info out but user behind avatar could be anyone and not a friend-don't give out personal info to them)
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Staying safe: Social media
Social networking sites, instant messaging, chat rooms-good to keep in touch w/ friends and family but when chatting to strangers-don't meet up in real life-dangerous. Meet them w/ adult/parent and arrange in public place- may be grooming
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Criminal offence-adults use Internet to build up young person's confidence, ask for photos,contact details and then meet in person-assault/abuse the young person
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Staying safe: Web cams
Only used for talking to friends/family not someone you met online
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Staying safe: Emails
Emails sent to groups of people should be sent carefully-put people who don't want others to know their details/privacy in the BCC section so others don't see address
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Consequence of cyberbullying
Other people see rude comments to people online-unpleasant comment posted online can be seen by anyone not just person you are targeting
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Using texts, social media, email (computers/mobile phones) to make another person upset/uncomfortable/hurt-feel it is impossible to escape-happens at home and any time of day-people can join in-person may commit suicide from insecurity/isolation
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What victims of cyberbullying can do
Tell adult e.g. parent/teacher for help. Save proof e.g. texts/screenshot websites-easier to deal w/ bully. Don't give bullies a reaction-get bored and move on-want victim to be upset/scared/foolish to look good to friends. Don't join in/be audience
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Chain emails
Sent to lots of people-contain jokes/threats that somethign bad will happen if you don't forward it-encourages to send to everyone in address book to make chain longer-passes all emails already on message to others. Delete chain emails/report to adul
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Flaming emails
Contain angry/abusive messages e.g. sent immediately after fight in anger-not possible to take back. Best to take time to calm down and think before reacting
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Filtering content
Content filtering software e.g. schools restricts inappropriate material e.g. some emails, hate sites (promote hate against races, religion etc), pornographic sites. However, some new sites may open that aren't filtered and may be accessible.
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Defence against hacking-hardware or software-prevents unauthorised access to a computer/network. Limits data sent to and from system e.g. block unsafe websites, instrusion detection-alerts user of unauthorised person tries to access computer
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User accounts and passwords
Online systems are secured w/ usernames and passwords. But sites e.g. online games-low security levels so people could gain access to passwords-should choose less important password. Sites e.g. Internet banking use encryption to protect data
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Levels of access
Network computer systems give username and password to users to log on and controls rights user has on network e.g. software available, access to files. They control what you are allowed to do to files
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The levels of access
No access (can't open files), Read only (can open file but not make changes to original), Read/write (can open file and make changes but can't delete it), Full access (do anything to file)
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url (uniform resource locator)
The web address. Url of secure sites starts w/ https rather than http and has padlock symbol- safe
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PIN (Personal identification number)
Numeric password e.g. access ATM/bank account
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ATM (automated teller machine)/cashpoints
Bank customers can check accounts and deposits and withdraw money
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Password rules
Minimum number of characters, password has numbers and letters- stronger password harder to guess but user may not remember passowrd and write it down. Passwords changed frequently and kept secret to control security
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Use human characteristics of person's body to identify them e.g. fingerprint recognition, retina scanning-scan back of person's eye, voice recognition- can be used instead of passwords
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Physical methods to prevent unauthroised access
Lock and alarm doors of room, CCTV cameras record people entering/leaving room, room above ground levels-computers less visible to thieves/difficult to carry away, Voice recognition to enter rooms
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Physical methods to prevent high risk unauthroised access
Clamp computers to desks, install locks to prevent them being used, block access to removable media devices so unauthorised copying of data to USBs/CDs is prevented
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Internet fraud
Chip and pin technology-harder to use stolen credit cards for criminals so they use methods to get people's bank details to steal money from Internet
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Forget login details
Set security questions to answer to change password e.g. DOB
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Prevent keystroke logging
Characters selected from drop down list to criminal can't capture details
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Image code recognition
Site displays picture of text and person has to type in chracters
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Sending convincing emails pretending to be from organisation that handles financial transactions e.g. bank, Amazon. Email says user has to log on to a website and update security details-gives criminal access to person's account
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Ways to spot fraud
Real bank email uses name instead of 'Dear customer' (criminals don't know name), url-criminals create convincing url but not same as bank's real one, email address not real bank's one, spelling/grammar errors.
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Prevent fraud
Phishing filters can scan websites for suspicion by compared web address against list of known phishing sites. However, websites and email addresses for frauds are regularly changed
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ATM fraud
Fix device in card slot that reads card details and criminal collects this and have information to produce fake duplicate card and withdraw money
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Identity theft
Gathering personal information e.g. name, address, password from someone's electronic identity e.g. Internet shopping account and stealing money from bank accounts/buying goods pretending to be that person
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Software downloaded onto computer without owner's knowledge or permission. Looks for password files saved on computer/online accounts and sends data back from computer. Anti spyware software-detect attempts to install spyware on computer.
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Acceptable use policies (AUPs)
Set out what users are permitted to do when using organisation's computer facilities e.g. websites allowed to access, emails. e.g. schools, businesses
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Collaboration working
People work together to achieve common target-plan what needs to be done and job role for each person
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House style
Agreed set of layout and format rules before work starts when working collaboratively to keep work consistent. Template set up so fonts, styles, margins etc- easier to control
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Recursive process
Repetitive process when document is revised (reviewed for alterations and checked that it matches house style), edited (word choice and grammar checked) and proofread (spot last minute errors) to improve final product
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Roles in recursive process
Different people will check text for different errors e.g. editors check text isn't too long to fit space, proofreaders check for spelling/grammar errors etc
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Final version of document sent to printer including text of document, pictures etc
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Collaborative working processes: Planning
Shows what person covers what task and by what date task has to be completed (deadline). Has milestones (key points that must be reached by certain dates to complete project on time). People stick to plan and inform others if changes needed
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Collaborative working processes: Communication
Important to be done regularly. ICT-allow people to collaborate over world e.g. Internet
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Not expensive and arrive quicker than letters. Files and info can be exchanged in members of team
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Communication- Instant messaging
People can have text conversation in real time and send files. Can also use webcam to add video or microphone to send voice and save conversation for future. Emoticons-more interesting
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Communications-Chat rooms
People log on and send message to others logged on. Companies can use to supply customer support or have private chat rooms to work together
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Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
Internet communication used to transmit sound/phone calls. For broadband users-free calls so cuts down on phone bills to telephone company but both people in call have to use VoIP e.g. Skype
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Project management
Need agreed list of tasks and who is responsible for what, schedule of when each task completed, list of resources needed, agreed budget, final deadline for project completion
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Project management software
Computer program that helps project managers track progress of project and plan resources
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Gantt charts
Display time schedule for each task as they occur over period of time when project developed and show whether work is on time. If one task falling behind-chart shows effect it may have on finishing time for whole project
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Workflow management software
Organisation can set up computer program where data passed onto people who need it in project. Helps managers track progress of projects and model effect of delays-helps them make decisions and manage flow of project
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Working in a team
People review and give constructive criticism in positive way to improve end product. Teams can communicate on Internet but sometimes need formal meeting to discuss emergency or important matter
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People can hold virtual meeting using ICT with two way video and audio transmitted in real time.
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Videoconferencing advantages
Sound and pictures transmitted simultaneously across Internet-seems like face to face meeting, can be good quality video, saves time and money as everyone doesn't need to travel, reducing miles people travel on vehicles-good for environment
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Videoconferencing disadvantages
Each person needs video camera, microphone, speakers and monitor for video and sound, simple, cheaper equipment can be used but not as good sound/video quality as specialist software, less personal than face to face meeting
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Videoconferencing advantages
Arrangements can be made quickly for emergency meetings, people can send files to discuss at meetings, can see body language expressions of others
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Videoconferencing disadvantages
Needs high bandwidth for good sound/video quality, always short time of lag between people speaking
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Using ICT to hold virtual meeting online using text and sound but not video.Team logs onto software at same time and meeting is done w/ microphone. e microphone and gaining permission-ensures
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Members can communicate by typing or asking manager to use microphone and gaining permission-ensures one person talks at a a time, no video so less bandwidth needed that videoconferencing and less data needs to be transferred
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Virtual learning environments (VLEs)
Systems at school that encourage people to collaborate using bulletin boards and forums to discuss issues or work in groups so they can access school material from home
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Bulletin boards
Online discussion space where people post message and get responses from other people
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Allow users to share files in companies
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Network management software
Allows file permissions (actions users are allowed to perform on a file) to be controlled and track which users have worked on a file -useful when tracking changes to shared documents if problem occurs
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System in an organisation-looks like website but only available in company-passes on info that employees need and has bulletin board where employees discuss company issues
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Actors and musicians to connect and share their music and ideas and work together on new projects
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Online games sites
People all over world play games together and join virtual world
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Web pages that allow people to access information and edit/add content to them e.g. Wikipedia
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Collaborative documents
e.g. word processors-allow readers to add comments on work of others and edited work can appear in different colour etc so person can look at suggestions and compare to old version to see if they are good enough
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Sharing files
Need to share files to edit/add content to them. To ensure no one works on out of date versions of file-version control used
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Version control
People agree how new files should be names-system ensures people working collaboratively don't work on old versions of document e.g. use shared storage area and rename file when changes added
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Security and online safety in collaborative working
Storage area-secure so users need usernames and passwords.
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Backup so a secure copy exists if data accidentally corrupted/deleted by hard drive failure/hackers and viruses/member of team may delete by accident. Backups made to removable media e.g. CDs and DVDs stored securely away from main computer.
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Backup devices
Memory sticks can hold lots of data but are small and easy to lose/damage-better to store online but online backup services charge fee
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Advantages of collaborative home working (teleworking)
Some networks allow remote access (users can log on from any location)- useful for working away from office, no travel to work-saves time and money, benefits parents/carers for elderly/disabled, companies save money-less office space
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Disadvantages of collaborative home working (teleworking)
Security risk of remote access-more difficult to know who is logged on, companies have to ensure they have secure reliable network and that work at home is backed up
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Internet, Intranet, Extranet
Intranet-for organisations to display internal info for employees only. If intranet extended to customers and suppliers outside organisation-extranet-exterbal users have limited access e.g. school VLE-parents can log on from home
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RFID (radio frequency identification)
Companies use RFID tags to track of where goods are/track products along production line-broadcast signals picked up by sensors e.g. security tags for clothes in shops
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Data entered into a system e.g. bar codes scanned



Card 3


Input turned into useful form


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Action that occurs after input processed e.g. name/price of item displayed


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Information kept for later use


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


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