Henry VII's Government

What were the 3 main functions of Henry's council?
- To advise the King / - To administer the realm on the King's behalf / - To make legal judgements
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Definition of Elites?
Select group that are considered to be superior in terms of ability, birth or qualities to the rest of a group or society.
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Definition of magnate?
In this context a member of the highest ranks of the nobility.
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3 main types of Councillor?
- Members of nobility / - Churchmen / -Laymen (Gentry or Lawyers)
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What are prerogative rights?
This describes those rights or powers which the monarch could exercise without requiring the consent of Parliament
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What was the Duchy of Lancaster?
A significant body of property, mostly but not exclusively situated in Lancashire which personally belonged to the King but was formally the territory of the Duke; Henry's often gave positions of power within the duchy to his most trusted servants
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What was the Great Council?
The gathering of the House of Lords meeting without the House of Commons. It was an occasional body with no clearly defined functions.
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What did the Great Council usually concern itself with?
Issues relating to wars or rebellions and was a means of binding the nobility to key decisions relating to national security.
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How many times in total did The Great Council meet during Henry VII's reign?
5 times
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When was the Council Learned in Law developed?
In the second half of the reign.
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Where did the Council Learned often meet?
In the office of the Duchy of Lancaster
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What was the function of the Council Learned in Law?
To maintain the King's revenue and to exploit his prerogative rights.
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Why was the Council Learned viewed as a 'shady operation' by many historians?
It was not a recognised court of law and those who were summoned before it had no chance to appeal.
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What did modern historian Thomas Penn argue about the Council Learned in Law?
It caused fear,frustration and anger, as it bypassed the normal legal system.
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Bureaucrat definition?
An official in a government department, in particular one perceived as being concerned with procedural correctness at the expense of people's needs.
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Courtier definition?
A person who attends a royal court as a companion or adviser to the monarch.
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Who was Reginald Bray's associate in the Council Learned?
Richard Empson
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From what date was Richard Empson a member of the King's council?
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Who was Richard Empson and how did he affect the Council Learned?
He was an ambitious lawyer and bureaucrat. His ruthless approach increasingly defined the behavior of the Council Learned.
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When was the death of Reginald Bray?
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Who was Richard Empson joined by in the Council Learned following the death of Bray?
Edmund Dudley
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What did Empson and Dudley do during their time in the Council Learned?
They raised the extraction of money from the King's subjects to a fine art and became feared amongst the people due to their ruthless ways.
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Examples of some enemies made by Empson and Dudley?
Bishop Fox and Sir Thomas Lovell
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What happened to Empson and Dudley after the death of Henry?
They were removed from the council learned and executed for treason.
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When was the death of Empson and Dudley?
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What were the reactions from the people to the death of Empson and Dudley?
There was rejoicing in the streets.
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What does the people's reaction to the death of Empson and Dudley show?
It shows how feared and unpopular their financial control became in the last years of Henry's reign.
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What rewards did the courtiers generally receive?
Paid positions or the right to receive free food.
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What was the Chamber?
The private areas of the court ; also key department for the efficient collection of royal revenues.
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What was The Lord Chamberlain?
An experienced nobleman and member of the King's council, and a personal friend of the king.
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What power did The Lord Chamberlain have?
Administrative and political power, often speaking for the monarch in an official capacity. Also responsible for organising court ceremonies.
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What was the Privy Chamber?
Made up of the close personal servants of the monarch; its members had direct access to the monarch and therefore could influence him or her more directly.
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Chivalrous definition?
To be gallant, or courteous; the chivalrous culture of the early Tudor court was a code of conduct associated historically with the dutiful behaviour of medieval knights.
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What were the different levels to the court?
- The household proper / -The Chamber (politically important part)
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What was the household proper responsible for?
For looking after the king, the courtiers, the guests and others who were being entertained.
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Who were the responsibilities of the household proper supervised by?
The Lord Steward
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Who presided over the Chamber?
The Lord Chamberlain
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Why would the responsibility of the Lord Chamberlain in terms of the Chamber be worrying to Henry VII?
He had a high level of power and trust so to learn that Sir William Stanley was part of the Perkin Warbeck impersonation plot would be shocking to Henry.
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What was Henry's response to the issue with the Lord Chamberlain in 1495?
He created the Privy Chamber to which the King could retreat, protected by his most intimate servants.
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How was the character of the court changed due to the Privy Chamber?
It made it more difficult for those who were out of favour to gain support. Henry cut himself off from much of the King's traditional contacts at court.
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What were the two main functions of Parliament?
- To pass laws / -To grant taxation to the Crown
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What was Parliament comprised of?
The House of Commons and The House of Lords
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Extraordinary Revenue definition?
Money raised by the King from additional sources as one-off payments when he faced an emergency or an unforeseeable expense of government; this could be made up of parliamentary grants, loans or clerical taxes for example.
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Fifteenths and Tenths definition?
This was a standard form of taxation, calculated in the 14th century, paid by towns and boroughs to the Crown.
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Who had the right to call Parliament?
Only the King.
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How many parliaments did Henry call in total throughout his reign?
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What were the main concerns of Henry's early calls of Parliament?
Issues of national security and the raising of revenue.
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Bond definition?
A legal document which bound an individual to another to perform an action or forfeit a specified sum of money if they failed to do so.
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Recognizance definition?
A formal acknowledgement of a debt or other obligation which could be enforced by means of a financial penalty.
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What was Henry's main concern in employing his nobility to exercise power on his behalf?
He did not want them to gain so much power themselves that they could challenge the King's own authority.
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What was Edward IV's use of his nobles throughout the country?
He divided the country into whole spheres of his influence and each was controlled by a noble or magnate.
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Why could Henry not have the same privilege that Edward IV had with his nobles?
The number of Magnates had been reduced in the last years of the Wars of Roses.
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Where was Henry's exercise of his nobility refined to?
It was largely confined to the north of England, to Henry's relatives the Stanleys in the northwest and to the Earl of Northumberland in the northeast and Yorkshire.
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What did the murder of the latter in 1489 cause?
It left Henry without a great magnate to exercise power on his behalf in that strategically important area.
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How did Henry solve the problem of the of not having a a great magnate to exercise power?
He released the Earl of Surrey from the Tower to rule the north on his behalf.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Definition of Elites?


Select group that are considered to be superior in terms of ability, birth or qualities to the rest of a group or society.

Card 3


Definition of magnate?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


3 main types of Councillor?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are prerogative rights?


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