# G482 Physics definitions (all 70 definitions!!!!)

I havent found a resource with every definiton, If i have missed any please say.

feel free to print these off, hope it helps :)

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- Created by: Ragnaros the Firelord
- Created on: 10-05-13 22:51

electric current

the net flow of charged particles per unit time through a point. unit; amperes. vector quantity

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conventional current

a model used to describe the movement of charged particles in a circuit. positive to negative

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electron flow

the movement of electrons (charged particles) around a circuit. negative to positive

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electric charge

measured in coulombs, 1 coulomb being the total charge supplied by a current of 1 ampere in a time of 1 second

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ammeter

instrument that measures electrical current

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elementary charge

the charge on one electron is 1.6 x 10-19

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Kirchoff I

the sum of the current flowing into a junction/point is equal to the sum of the current flowing out of the junction/point. due to conservation of charge

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mean drift velocity

the average speed of charged particles along the length of a conductor

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conductor

a material with a high number density of conduction electrons and therefore a low resistance

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semiconductor

a material with low number density of conduction electrons and therefore a high resistance

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insulator

a material with a number density of conduction electrons nearing 0 and therefore a very high resistance

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electromotive force

energy transferred per unit charge when a type of energy is being converted to electrical energy. work done on every unit of charge. vector quantity

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potential difference

energy transferred per unit charge when electrical energy is converted into another form of energy. work done by every unit of charge

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voltmeter

instrument used to measure electromotive force and potential difference across components

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power

work done per unit time

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resistance

a property of a component that regulates the electrical current flowing through it. resistance is the potential difference across a component per unit current

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Ohm's law

states that at a constant temperature, the current that flows through a component is directly proportional to the potential difference across it

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light-emitting-diodes

a component that only allows electric current flow through it in one direction and that emits light when a p.d. is applied across it

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resistivity

described property of the material rather than of the electrical component

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dynamo

device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy

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fuse

an electrical component designed to heat up, melt and break the circuit (hence stop the current) when a specified amount of electrical current passes through it. safety device

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kWh

unit of energy used by electrical companies when charging for electricity

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series

a circuit in which the components are connected end-to-end and therefore there is only one path for current to flow

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parallel

a circuit in which there is more than one "loop" connected to the power supply, therefore more than one path for current to flow

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Kirchoff II

the sum of the e.m.f.'s around a loop is equal to the sum of the p.d.'s around the same loop. due to conservation of charge

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internal resistance

resistance of an e.m.f. source

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terminal p.d

this is the total p.d. across the "load" (external) resistance

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potential divider

a type of circuit containing two components designed to divide up the p.d. in proportion to the resistances of the components

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progressive waves

move through material (excluding EM), transferring energy from one position to another

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mechanical waves

waves that need a medium to travel through

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longitudinal

motion of the oscillation of particles is parallel to the direction of propagation

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transverse

motion of oscillation of particles is perpendicular to the direction of propagation

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displacement

the distance from a given point on the wave to its equilibrium/rest point

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amplitude

maximum displacement from equilibrium/rest point, measured in metres

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wavelength

the smallest distance between one point on a wave and the identical point on the next wave (i.e. peak to peak) measured in metres

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period

time taken to complete one full oscillation (from peak to peak), measured in seconds

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frequency

the number of oscillation passing a point per second, measured in Hz f = 1/T

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phase difference

the proportion of a cycle by which two waves are "out of sync", measured in radians. phase difference of two points on a wave - amount by which one oscillation leads/lags behind another

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wave speed

speed with which energy is transmitted by a wave. v= fλ or c= fλ

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intensity

rate of energy transfer per unit area at right angles to wave velocity

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reflection

when waves rebound from a barrier, changing direction but remaining in the same medium

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refraction

when waves change direction when they travel from one medium to another due to difference in wave speed in each medium

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diffraction

when a wave spreads out after passing around an obstacle or through a gap

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electromagnetic waves

a self-propagating transverse wave that does not require a medium to travel through

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polarity

a wave property that allows us to distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves

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polarisation

the process of turning an un-polarised wave into a plane polarised wave

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plane polarised

a transverse wave that only oscillates in one direction

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Malus' Law

physical law describing the change in intensity of a wave passing through a Polaroid analyser

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superposition

ability of a waves to pass through each other and temporarily occupy the same space and combine then carry on unaffected

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interference

the addition (superposition) of two or more coherent waves, resulting in a new wave formed

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coherence

two waves with a constant phase relationship over a significant period of time. coherent sources emit waves that have a constant phase relationship

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path difference

the proportion of a wavelength by which two waves are "out of sync"

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constructive interference

when two waves superpose and reinforce to give an increased amplitude

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destructive interference

two waves that superimpose and cancel out to give a reduced amplitude

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monochromatic

light of one wavelength or frequency

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stationary waves

a wave pattern produced when two progressive waves of the same frequency travelling in opposite directions superpose, and the energy is stored rather than transferred from one place to another

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antinode

point of maximum amplitude along a stationary wave caused by constructive interference

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node

a point that always has 0 amplitude along a stationary wave caused by destructive interference

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fundamental mode of vibration

the simplest stationary wave that can be set up where the length of the string is half the wavelength

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fundamental frequency

lowest frequency in harmonics series where a stationary wave forms

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harmonics

whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency of a stationary wave

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photon

a quantum packet of energy of electromagnetic radiation

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electronVolt

the energy change of an electron when it moves through a potential difference of 1 volt

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photocell

a component that reduced its resistance when light shines on it due to the photoelectric emissions of electrons

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work function

minimum energy required by a single electron to escape the metal surface

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threshold frequency

the minimum frequency required to release electrons from the surface of a metal

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de broglie

an equation expressing the wavelength of a particle as a ratio of planck's constant and the particles momentum

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spectrum

collection of waves with a range of frequencies

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emission spectra

a pattern of colours of light, each colour having a specific wavelength

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absorption spectra

a spectrum of light with dark lines produced when light passes through a cool gas and the gas absorbs certain frequencies depending on the elements in the gas

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

a model used to describe the movement of charged particles in a circuit. positive to negative

#### Back

conventional current

### Card 3

#### Front

the movement of electrons (charged particles) around a circuit. negative to positive

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

measured in coulombs, 1 coulomb being the total charge supplied by a current of 1 ampere in a time of 1 second

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

instrument that measures electrical current

#### Back

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