Diet and Nutrition

  • Created by: AliceTori
  • Created on: 16-05-17 11:10
Balanced diet
a diet containing a variety of foods from each of the food groups so there is an adequate intake of nutrients
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a simple sugar and the major source of energy for the body's cells
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stored form of glucose found in the muscles and the liver
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Glycaemic index
this ranks carbohydrates according to their effort on our blood glucose levels
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The seven food groups are:
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water
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Simple carbohydrates
are easily digested by the body
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Complex carbohydrates
usually take longer for the body to digest
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Simple carbohydrates are found in...
fruits and in processed foods as well as those containing refined sugar
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Complex carbohydrates are found in...
nearly all plant based foods, most commonly in bread, pasta, rice and vegetables
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Foods with a low glycaemic index cause...
slower, sustained release of glucose into the blood causing blood glucose levels to be maintained for longer
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Foods with a high glycaemic index cause...
a rapid, short rise in blood glucose but it will be short lived
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Low glycaemic index foods should be eaten...
3-4 hours before exercise
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High glycaemic index foods should be eaten...
1-2 hours before exercise
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Saturated fats
found in both sweet and savoury foods, most coming from animal sources
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Too much saturated fat can cause...
excessive weight gain
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Excessive weight gain can lead to...
affects on stamina, limit of flexibility and health problems such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure
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a type of fat found in the blood
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Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
they transport cholesterol in the blood to the tissues and are classed as 'bad' cholesterol since they are linked to an increased risk of heart disease
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High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
they transport excess cholesterol in the blood back to the liver where it is broken down. HDL's are classed as 'good' cholesterol since they lower the risk of developing heart disease
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Too much LDL can lead to...
fatty deposits developing in arteries which have a negative effect on blood flow
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High levels of HDL can...
ensure that excess cholesterol from parts of the body where is has accumulated is transported back to the liver faster
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a type of unsaturated fat that can be found in meat of dairy
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Most trans-fats are made by...
hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils (the addition of hydrogen to make the oil become a solid at room temperature)
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Trans-fats can cause...
high levels of blood cholesterol so we should consume no more than 5 grams per day
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Trans-fats and saturated fats should be replaced by...
unsaturated fats in our diet
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Unsaturated fats are used for...
low intensity, aerobic work such as jogging
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Fats are carriers for...
fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K
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a combination of many amino acids
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Proteins are important for...
muscle growth and repair and to make enzymes, haemoglobin and hormones
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Amino acids
used in all body cells to build proteins
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Proteins are...
a minor store of energy
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Proteins tend to be used by...
power athletes who have a greater need to repair and develop muscle tissue
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Proteins provide more energy when...
glycogen and fat stores are low
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Sources of protein are...
meat, fish, eggs and dairy products
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they are essential nutrients that your body requires in small amounts to be able to work effectively
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Fat-soluble vitamins- A, D, E and K
found predominantly in fatty foods and animal products
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Fat-soluble vitamins are stored...
in the liver and fatty tissues for use at a later date
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Water-soluble vitamins- the B and C vitamins
found in a wider range of foods such as fruit, vegetables and dairy products
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Water-soluble vitamins are...
not stored in the body so need to be taken daily
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Excessive consumption of water -soluble vitamins...
will not have any beneficial effects as any addition amounts will be excreted through urine
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these assist in bodily functions
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Minerals tend to be...
dissolved in the body as ions and are called electrolytes
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Minerals facilitate...
the transmission of the nerve impulses and enable effective muscle contraction
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salts and minerals found in the blood that can conduct electrical impulses in the body
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Sources of minerals are...
meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, cereals, vegetables, fruits and nuts
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needed for strong bones and teeth and is also necessary for effective nerve and muscle function
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helps to regulate fluid levels
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Too much sodium can...
be linked to an increase in blood pressure which can increase the risk of a stroke or heart attack
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helps with the formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells which helps to transport oxygen
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A lack of iron can...
lead to anaemia
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important in exercise as it can slow down the time it takes the body to break down food
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A slower time to break down food causes...
a slower, more sustained release of energy
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Dietary fibre...
causes bulk in the small intestine, helping to prevent constipation and aiding digestion
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Sources of fibre are...
wholemeal bread and pasta, potatoes, nuts, seeds, fruit, vegetables and pulses
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Water transports...
nutrients, hormones and waste products around the body
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Water is...
the main component of many cells and plays an important role in regulating body temperature
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occurs when the body is losing more fluid than it is taking in
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Dehydration causes...
an increase in blood viscosity, which reduces blood flow to working muscles
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Dehydration causes...
Reduced sweating to prevent water loss, which results in an increase in core temperature
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Dehydration causes...
muscle fatigue and headaches
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Dehydration causes...
a reduction in the exchange of waste products/transportation of nutrients
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Dehydration causes...
an increased heart rate resulting in a lower cardiac output
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Dehydration causes...
decreased performance/ decreased reaction time/ decreased decision making
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Glycogen loading
a form of dietary manipulation to increase glycogen stores over and above that which can normally be stored. It is used by endurance performers
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Depletion of muscle glycogen stores results in...
fatigue and the inability to maintain the duration and intensity of training
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Positive effects of glycogen loading
increased glycogen storage, increased glycogen stores in the muscle, delays fatigue, increases endurance capacity
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Negatives effects of glycogen loading- during carbo-loading phase
water retention (which results in bloating), heavy legs, affects digestion, weight increase
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Negative effects of glycogen loading- during depletion phase
irritability, can alter the training programme through a lack of energy
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a compound the body can make naturally which supplies energy for muscular contraction; it can also be used as a supplement to increase athletic performance
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Creatine increases
the amount of phosphocreatine stored in the muscles
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Phosphocreatine is used to...
fuel the ATP-PC system which provides energy
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ATP-PC system
an energy system that provides quick bursts of energy and is used for high intensity exercise but it can only last for up to 10 seconds
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ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate)
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Increased levels of creatine can...
help to improve recovery times, will also allow the energy systems in muscles to last for longer
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Positive effects of creatine:
aims to provide ATP (energy), replenishes phosphocreatine stores, allows the ATP-PC system to last longer, improves muscle mass
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Negative effects of creatine:
possible side effects of: muscles cramps, diarrhoea, water retention, bloating and vomiting; hinders aerobic performance, mixed evidence to show the benefits
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Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
a white soluble compound used as an antacid
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the ability of the blood to compensate for the build-up of lactic acid or hydrogen ions in the blood to maintain pH level
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Hydrogen ions
responsible for the acidity of the blood
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Lactic acid
a by-product of anaerobic respiration; as it accumulates, it causes fatigue
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Sodium bicarbonate acts to...
reduce the acidity within muscle cells in order to delay fatigue to allow a performer to continue exercise at a very high level
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Positive effects of soda loading:
reduces acidity in the muscle cells, delays fatigue, increases the buffering capacity of the blood
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Negative effects of soda loading:
possible side effects of vomiting, pain, cramping, diarrhoea and bloating
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a naturally occurring stimulant
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Caffeine is thought to...
increase mental alertness, reduce fatigue and improve the mobalisation of fatty acids
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Caffeine is used by:
predominantly by endurance athletes/performers who tend to use their aerobic system due to fats being used more for low-intensity, long-durance exercise
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Caffeine can be found in:
coffee, tea, cola, chocloate, energy bars with caffeine and caffeinated gels
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Positive effects of caffeine are:
it increased mental alertness, reduces the effect of fatigue, allows fats to be used as an energy source (delays use of glycogen stores)
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Positive effects of caffeine are:
improves decision making/improves reaction times, may benefit aerobic performance/endurance athletes
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Negative effects of caffeine are:
loss of fine control, against the rules of most sports in large quantities
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Negative effects of caffeine are:
possible side effects include: dehydration, insomnia, muscle cramps, stomach cramps, vomiting, irregular heart beat, diarrhoea
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


a simple sugar and the major source of energy for the body's cells



Card 3


stored form of glucose found in the muscles and the liver


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


this ranks carbohydrates according to their effort on our blood glucose levels


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water


Preview of the back of card 5
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