• Created by: Sophie153
  • Created on: 11-12-15 10:38
What is Introspection?
Subjective observation of ones own experience (present a stimulus and then report your experience)
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What is structuralism?
Analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
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What is Gestalt Psychology?
Reaction to structuralism, whole is different to sum of the parts
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What is behaviourism?
Study behaviour and no reference to internal mental events
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What is epistemology?
The philosophical study of how we know things
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what is deduction?
drawing a conclusion from premises e.g. A: all swans are white B: Ben is a swan conclusion: ben is white (conclusion is true as long as premises are)
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What is induction?
drawing a conclusion from premises. A: Jane the swan is white b:Eddie the swan is white conclusion: all swans are white (conclusion may be true but not guaranteed)
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what is verifications?
Seeking out evidence that proves the theory
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what is falsification and what did Karl Popper say?
you can never prove a theory however much evidence you accumulate, only disprove by contradictory evidence (only need one piece)
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What are neuroscience methods for?
1)help rule out certain algorithmic theories of cognitive function 2)help identify how some cognitive algorithms are implemented in neural tissue
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what is spatial resolution?
how finely you can detect activity
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what is temporal resolution?
how often we sample/measure across time
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What does EEG stand for?
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What does ERP stand for?
Event-related potentials
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What does MEG stand for?
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What does MRI stand for?
Magnetic resonance imaging
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what is GVS
Galvanic Vestibular stimultion
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what is TMS?
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
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what is TACS?
transcranial alternating current stimulation
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What is Akinetopsia?
condition where person can no longer see motion due to brain lesion
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what is the left hemisphere for?
language, fine details
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what is the right hemisphere for?
face perception, prosody, low resolution/big picture
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What does grey matter contain?
cell bodies of nerve cells
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What is the surface grey matter called?
Cerebral cortex
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What does white matter contain?
"wires" connecting the nerve cells
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what do cranial nerves do?
bring visual, auditory, olfactory information and controls facial muscles and sensation, swallowing...
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what is the frontal lobe for?
planning, social interaction, attention, movement
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what is parietal lobe for?
spatial perception, attention, sense of touch
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what is temporal lobe for?
language, object recognition, hearing
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what is occipital lobe for?
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what is cerebellum for?
motor coordintion, cognitive functions
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what is thalamus for?
sensory relay
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what is hypothalamus for?
sleep, hinger, sex
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what is eye movements for?
attention orienting
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what is motor tract for?
control of body/sensations
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what is the subarachnoid?
filled with cerebrospinal fluid and delicate connective tissue
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how can shocks to cranium be reduced?
can be partially absorbed by these layers and fluid
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what is system of arteries for?
ensure reliable delivery of blood to brain
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how much space of cortical areas do projection areas take up?
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how much space of cortical areas do association areas take up?
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What are projection areas?
primary motor areas: sends axons in to body, last point of cortical processing/brain control before messages sent to body. Primary sensory areas: receives axons projecting from sensory areas, first point of contact with cortex, for vision/audition
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What are association areas?
they integrate info from projection areas and do higher-order processing on it. involved in thought, spatial recognition, memory..
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what does brightness of voxels represent?
density of the tissue or some other property. Brighter=smaller suclus, more grey matter. darker: bigger sulcus, less grey matter
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what does VBM stand for?
Voxel-based Morphometry
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how do you use MRI to understand cognition VBM?
get a p-value at each brain voxel indicating if tissue differs between groups, plot significant p-values on a template
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what is brain plasticity?
ability of brain to change structure and function in response to experience, injury...
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What are neurons?
elongated, separated by gaps, electrically active, connected in a network (aprox 80-90 billion)
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what are glia cells?
support (physical and chemical) , some contain insulating myelin, 10x more glia cells than neurons in some areas , regulate fuel + blood flow(their activity affects BOLD), guide development(neural migration + provide chemicals to stop it),communicate
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what is the cell body (soma)?
contains cell nucleus, other cellular machinery e.g. mitochondria. width:5-100 microns
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what are dendrites?
meaning tree, short network of thin projections from cell body, receives signal from other neurons,
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what are axons?
relatively long projection from cell body, motor neurons are longest. sends signals to other neurons
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What is Myelin sheath?
a fatty substance that is insulation for nerve impulses travelling along axon, each myelin wrapper is a projection from glial support cell, myelination speeds up nerve conduction and it happens over development
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what is based in grey matter?
cell bodies, dendrites
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What is based in white matter?
axonal fibre tracts connecting different brain areas (white colour comes from fatty myelin sheaths around the axons)
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What do ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes do?
line cavities, secrete cerebrospinal fluid (in CNS)
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What do astrocytes and microglia do?
link to blood supply, regulate chemicals around neurons (in CNS)
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What do Schwann cells do?
Coat axons with myelin sheaths (in PNS)
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what do satellite cells do?
surround ganglia and regulate external chemical environment of cells (in PNS)
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what are three stages of an action potential?
resting potential (sodium channels open), action potential (depolarisation, sodium channels close, repolarisation, refractory period), resting state returns
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At what value does an AP occur?
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where does depolarisation occur?
propagates from one "node of ranvier" to the next (unmylinated spot on axon)
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what triggers AP?
Chemical activity in the synapse (slower than electrical activity, local membrane (receptor proteins), modifiable(memory, drugs). neurotransmitters (bind on sites on receptive neuron, can cause opening and closing of channels, changes polarisation of
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what is the presynaptic cell?
at end of neutron, vesicles containing neurotransmitters are dumped in the synapse)
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what are voltage gated ion channels?
open when cell reaches excitation threshold, cause rapid depolarisation, responsible for first part of AP
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What is the sodium potassium pump?
removes 3 Na+ ions from cell in exchange for 2 K+ ions, makes inside of cell more negative over time, uses energy to help maintain resting potential
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What triggers AP in Post synaptic neutron?
vesicles full of neurotransmitters are held in axon terminal, when AP reaches end of axon it triggers calcium channels to open, influx of calcium ions into axon terminal causes vesicles to merge with cell membrane, this releases neurotransmitters in
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what does binding of the neurotransmitter do?
causes shape change in ligand/transmitter-gated ion channels, this can open or close channels which affects flow of ions through it
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what is temporal summation?
several impulses from one neutron over time
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What is spatial summation?
impulses from several neurons at same time
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what are agonists?
enhance neurotransmitters effect
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what are antagonists?
impede neurotransmitters effects
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how do drugs work?
blocking the transmitter’s synaptic reuptake, counteracting the cleanup enzyme , mimicking the transmitter’s action
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What is an aneurysm?
balloon-like bulge in wall of blood vessel(can weaken and burst
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what does AVM stand for?
Arteriovenous Malformation
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what could happen with a AVM?
can rupture and cause haemorrhage
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example of hypokinetic movement disorder?
Parkinsons disease
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Example of hyperkinetic movement disorder?
Huntingtons disease
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What is Pallidotomy?
surgical destruction of the Globus Pallidus (to allow motor cortex activity)
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what is a seizure?
blood flow issues
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what is a seizure?
abnormal electrical activity
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what is dementia?
persistant intellectuel impairment
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what is timeline of explanations for psychopathology?
Demonology, somato-genesis, demonology, early mental hospitals, psycho-genesis, modern concepts
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What is general paresis? (1800s)
broad decline in physical and psychological functioning, delusions, hypochondria(worry about having a serious illness), paralysis and death within a few years if not treated
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what is the somatogenic hypothesis and who created it?
Richard von Kraft-Ebbing: general paresis was related to long-term syphillis infection, neurosyphilis: causes inflammation of meninges and brain. Hypothesis:mental disorders arise from physical illness/infection
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what is manic depression now classed as?
bipolar/major depression
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what is dementia praecox now known as?
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What is hysterical paralysis?
odd neurological-like symptoms such as limb paralysis but under hypnosis could still move them. suggests that paralysis comes from psychological processes
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what is diathesis-stress model?
rarely one source of abnormality, diathesis=predisposition
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what is biopsyhosocial model?
it is a multi-casual model, interactions between psychological, social and biological
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what are projective tests?
idea that frame of mind will unconsciously affect interpretation
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what is dysthymia?
longer term than major depressive episode, might think its part of character and not diagnosed, now persistent depressive disorder
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what is a proximate cause?
the influences within an individuals lifetime that lead to particular traits and behaviours
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what are ultimate causes?
evolution has caused traits that we all have
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what does DNA stand for?
DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
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What is DNA?
It is coiled up to form chromosomes, its made up of nucleic acids (in A-T and G-C pairs), DNA has long combos of these chemicals, when unravelled can be used as instructions for making proteins
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How does DNA change to protein?
Changes it to RNA, then into protein, proteins then perform functions in the cell (e.g. membrane channels...)
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what are genes?
Genes are subpart of DNA molecule that describes the structure of protein and its control sequence
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What is a genotype?
the genetic package of an individual(actual genes that influence our appearance/traits
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what is a phenotype?
the physical, behavioural and physiological appearance of an individual (way our genes are expressed)
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what is polygenic?
most behaviours and traits are a complex combo of many genes and different possible alleles
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what is natural selection?
how specific adaptations allow specific species to survive
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what is sexual selection?
get reproductive advantage, how these adaptations are passed on via genes to next generation e.g. nice tail signifies good genes for a peacock, so offspring also have good genes
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what is variation?
individuals in a pop genetically vary from each other
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what is selection?
some variants reproduce more than others + some die off
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What is intra-sexual selection?
same sex (usually males) compete for access of opposite sex. can lead to battles to fight e.g. bigger horns will winw
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what is inter-sexual selection?
opposite sex chose their mate based on elaborate ornamentation behaviours e.g. peacocks tail
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what does EEA stand for?
Environment of Evolutionary adaptedness
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What is EEA?
an array of factors that have influenced inclusive fitness during our evolution
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what is preparedness?
animals seem to be genetically predisposed to learn some associations more readily than others
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what is a balanced polymorphism?
one thing may have a downside but if balanced by a positive thing it can survive
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what is the passive perceiver?
the process of deciding doesn't distort nature of external information, current state of knowledge doesn't affect perception
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what is proximal stimulus?
the stimulus as it appears to sensory receptors
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what is distal stimulus?
actual 3D object in the real world
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what is perceptual consistency?
Our ability to accurately perceive properties of a distal object despite changes in the proximal stimulus that are caused by the viewing circumstances.
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how do estimate consistency for size?
linear perspective, binocular vision, mergence of the eyes
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what is unconscious interference?
no awareness, automatic
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what does an eyeball do?
receives light, focuses in to a clear image, adjusts aperture size to light level
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what does the retina do?
surface full of photoreceptors, image focused on curved surface, not like a film as receptors aren't evenly distributed
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what are photoreceptors and types?
cells at back of retina, contain photopigments,responsible for transduction. cones: sensitive to bright lights +colours rods: sensitive to faint achromatic light, in periphery
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what is transduction?
physical/energy stimuli in to neural impulses
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what are photopigments?
light sensitive chemicals, change shape when absorb light, change in shape leads to electrical signal within the cell, can cause the release of neurotransmitters onto neurons and thereby send signals into nervous system
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what happens with lesions in where pathway?
problems localising objects, no ability to shape hand to reach out and grab intact object
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what happens with lesions to what pathway?
impaired ability to recognise and identify objects (agnosia)
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what s geon theory?
objects are recognised by recognising combinations of easily discriminable 3D primitives (geons)
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what is Gestalt principles of perceptual grouping?
Ceteris Paribus rules:operate when all is equal (tend to group objects together, good continuation...)
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examples when behaviour is not always present when consciousness is
dreaming during sleep, awareness in vegetative state
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example when consciousness is not always present when behaviour is
blindsight, amnesia
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what is introspection?
ask people to tell us what they are thinking/seeing/feeling. can do this systematically and quantify their answer to test hypothesis
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what is Qualia?
Refers to the experiential feel of seeing, for instance, RED
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What is ineffable?
cannot be communicated, or apprehended by any other means than direct experience
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what is instrinsic?
do not change depending on the experience's relation to other things
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what is private?
that is, all interpersonal comparisons of qualia are systematically impossible
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what is immediately accessible in consciousness?
experience is all that there is in qualia
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what is substance dualism?
mind and body are separate substances, nature of mind substance is unknown as it isn't like physical with mass...
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who created mind-body problem Dualism solution and what is it
Rene Descartes, mind-body interact in Pineal Gland, they both affect each other
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what is property dualism?
mental entities aren't separate from physical matter, mental entities are extra properties of physical matter, when physical matter is organized in particular ways, mental properties may emerge, maintains distinction
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what is Epiphenomenalism
physical proprieties cause mental properties, causation one direction only
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what is idealism?
only mental events exist, physical features of world are an illusion
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what is materialism?
only physical entities exist, mind events are equivalent to brain events
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what is NCC?
Neural Correlates of consciousness
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what is NCC?
document how brain activity and conscious experience change together
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What is structuralism?


Analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind

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What is Gestalt Psychology?


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What is behaviourism?


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What is epistemology?


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