3.1.2.2 IMPACT OF SKILL CLASSIFICATION ON STRUCTURE OF PRACTICE FOR LEARNING

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What are the methods of practice?
Part practice, whole practice, progressive-part practice, whole-part-whole practice.
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What is the part method of practice?
Is often used when the skill is low in organisation and can be split up into sub-routines. If the skill is complex, this method is useful because it allows the performer to make sense of the skill.
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What is the whole method of practice?
A skill is taught without breaking it down into sub-routines or parts. If possible, this method should be employed more than any other because the player experiences the kinaesthesis for the skill and the transfer is likely to be positive.
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What is the progressive-part practice?
This is often referred to as chaining. A serial skill is often broken down into sub-routines, which that can be seen as links of a chain - for example, A-B-AB-C-ABC-D-ABCD.
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What is the whole-part-whole practice?
This practice method involves the performer firstly attempting the whole skill, then practising the skill in parts or sub-routines and then putting them together again to practise as a whole.
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What are the types of practice?
Massed, distributed, fixed, varied.
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What is massed practice?
Practice that involves very short, or no, rest intervals within the practice sessions.
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What is distributed practice?
Practice involves relatively long rests between trials. The 'rest' intervals could involve tasks that are unrelated to the main practice activity.
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What is fixed practice?
This involves a stable and predictable practice environment, with practice conditions remaining unchanging or 'fixed'.
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What is varied practice?
Practice needs to be varied so that the performer can come into contact with a range of experiences.
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What type of practice would you use for gross skills?
Practice methods might include the repetition of gross body movements to ensure consistant memory trace. Therefore, fixed practice would be used for gross skills.
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What type of practice would you use for fine skills?
Include repetitive training but also include mental rehersal practice to aid concentration. Therefore, fixed practice would be used for fine skills.
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What type of practice would you use for open skills?
A variety of situations should be experienced so that the performer can create a number of different strategies to cope with the changing nature of the environment. Therefore, varied pratice would be used for open skills.
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What type of practice would you use for closed skills?
They are practised repeatedly so that the skills become almost automatic. The constancy of the environment when performing closed skills is important. Therefore, fixed practice would be used for closed skills.
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What type of practice would you use for discrete skills?
Are better taught as a whole, rather than splitting them up into sub-routines. Therefore, whole practice would be used for discrete skills.
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What type of practice would you use for serial skills?
It might be appropriate to split a skill up into its component parts or sub-routines. Therefore, progressive-part practice would be used for serial skills.
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What type of practice would you use for continuous skills?
Are more effectively practised as a whole so that the kinaesthetic sense of movement can be retained. Therefore, whole practice would be used for continuous skills.
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What type of practice would you use for self-paced skills?
Self-paced skills would include fixed practices that involve more control for the performer to develop habitual responses that take less account of the environment.
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What type of practice would you use for externally paced skills?
Externally paced skill development might involve more varied practices to help the performer build strategies for a changing environment.
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What type of practice would you use for simple skills?
The learning and improvement of simple skills often involves practices that are repetitive and fixed because of the limited need for the performer to make decisions during skill production.
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What type of practice would you use for complex skills?
When learning or developing complex skills, a more varied practice method is often suitable to help the performer to learn appropriate decision-making strategies.
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What type of practice would you use for high organisation skills?
A highly organised skill is difficult to split into sub-routines. These types of skills are best practised with the whole method so that the pattern or rhythm of movement is experienced and the kinaesthetic sense of the skill is recognised.
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What type of practice would you use for low organisation skills?
A lowly organised skill is easy to split up into sub-routines. These types of skills are best practised with the part-progressive method.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the part method of practice?

Back

Is often used when the skill is low in organisation and can be split up into sub-routines. If the skill is complex, this method is useful because it allows the performer to make sense of the skill.

Card 3

Front

What is the whole method of practice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the progressive-part practice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the whole-part-whole practice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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