The Muscular System


The characteristics of a muscle:

  • Contractility: The ability to shorten and generate force.
  • Extensibility: The ability to stretch.
  • Elasticity: The ability to recoil once stretched.
  • Excitability: The ability to respond to an electrical stimuli.

There are three types of muscle:

Skeletal Muscle: This type of muscle exerts force on the skeletal system via tendon attachments and helps generate and control movement. Predominantly under voluntary control.

Smooth Muscle: is under in-voluntary control and is the most diverse. Typically found in organs such as the intestines and circulatory system. Moving food through the intestines (peristalsis) and blood flow control throughout the circulatory system.

Cardiac Muscle: is under in-voluntary control and is located in the heart only. It can contract without input however it is regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems.


  • Bone: Muscle is attached to the bone (periosteum) via tendon.
  • Tendon: A flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue,


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