China 1949-76 notes

  • Created by: S_webb
  • Created on: 07-10-18 23:13


  • 1927-37 Nanking decade, Jiangxi soviet 1928, 1934 Long March (100,000 embark, 20,000 survive), 1937 Second Sino-Japanese War, GMD and CCP at war in 1946 after breakdown of United Front. Importance of stability, eliminating political opposition (as in Yanan), broadening suupport base, gaining experience of running large urban areas (first gained in Harbin). Nationalist armeis actually outnumbered communists 4:1.
  • 1945 food supply at 25% of pre-war level, 30% lower food production 1945 vs 1937 (3 million dead in Henan famine), 20% of people lived in cities depending on surpluses from a countryside which was incapable even of feeding itself. 1949 inflation at 1,000% and all gold and foreing currnecy reserves were in Taiwan. 100 yuan in 1940 purchased a pig, in 1945 a fish and in 1946 an egg. Only 15% of land arable and methods extremely primitive. Population 541m 1949, 587m 1953. Advanced industrial areas were in Manchuria, in Japanese and then Soviet hands. NRC 1932 --  1945 30,000 experts serving 250,000 workers, 70% state-owned industry. Only Manchuria and eastern seaboard have transport and communications. State radio in beijing, experiments previously in Yanan. 1949 factoryo utput 44% of 1937. Hankou had been reduced to rubble by B-29 "Superfortress" bombings, formerly 2nd largest port. Similar story in Hainan.
  • 1949 Xinhua established. September 1949 -- CPPCC, 600 delgates and 14 other parties including China Democratic League. Central People's Government, Common Program. "On the People's Democratic Dictatorship" -- working class, peasantry, urban petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie were to have rights, "five black categories" were to be suppressed. "New Democracy". All existing laws and judicial system declared void. Six bureaux established, with government chairman, army political commissar, military commander and Party secretary attched to these. Deng, Lin and Peng all held mulitple posts, Gao Gang all four in Manchuria. 1954 new Constitution based upon the 1936 Soviet one. 21 provinces, five autonomous regions and Beijing and Shanghai. 1975 modified. NPC as new legilsautre, State Council replaces CPG, CPPCC remains as an advisory body to NPC. Party -- 1949 49 Central COmmittee, 25 Politburo, five Standing Committee. Zhou set up 24 ministeries, including Justice, Heavy Industry, Finance and Food within the State Council. 
  • 1949 720,000 state officials vs eight million in 1959. "Bureaucratisation of the revolution". Zhou Enlai premier of state council from 1949-76, Peng boht minister of defence and PLA commander-in-chief. 1958 Mao no longer head of state but retains real power as CHairman. Zhongnanhai -- model of the Kremlin. October 1949 4.5 million Party members vs 5.8 million by the end of 1950. Youth League 9m 1953, Women's FFederation 76m, Danwei ("work units"), permits to travel, marry and change jobs. 1950 PLA 5m, over 40% of state budget. Peng reduces this to 3.5m 1953, 2.5m 1957, professionalised with stricter ranks and organisation. After 1949 responsible for indoctrinating 800,000 young conscripts each year (served for three). Even by 1953 only 10% of Party membership were industrial workers.
  • Priorities -- nationalism, listening to the people, continuing revolution, mass mobilisation.
  • Idea of "democratic…


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