chapter 3 the impact of war and revolution and the development of the Russian empire and the USSR

  • Created by: loupardoe
  • Created on: 10-02-19 22:43

the crimean war 1853-6

long term origins

  • Russia was concerned to resolve the Eastern question in a way that best preserved its economic and political interests
  • 1827- Russia decided to support an agreement with Turkey to allow the Greeks to government themselves
  • the Sultan of Turkey was reluctant to stick to the agreement
  • resulted in the Battle of Navarino Bay
  • Russian, British and French naval squadrons combined to defeat the Sultan's naval fleet
  • Tsar Nicholas I reached an agreement with the sultan that allowed Russian merchant shipping easier access through the Straits and the Turkish seas
  • 2 months later the sultan reneged on the agreement
  • a full blown war between Russia and Turkey ensued
  • major Russian victories in the Balkans and Caucasus
  • Treaty of Adrianpole signed- sultan had to honor the Akkermann agreements; territory in the Caucasus and mouth of the Danube on the Black Sea ceded to Russia; Danubian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia recognised as temporary Russian protectorates
  • the war against Turkey had bothered Nicholas I- believed it contradicted the concept of legitimism that underpinned his foreign policy
  • 1833- decided to help the Ottomans in a struggle against Egyptian rebels led by Mehmet Ali
  • Russian efforts were rewarded through the Treaty of Unkiar Skelesi
  • resulted in Turkey agreeing to close the Straits to foreign warships during times of conflict
  • implied that Russian warships would be allowed to enter the Bosphorus and the heart of the Ottoman Empire
  • first attempt by Russia to transform the Turkish core area into a Russian protectorate
  • Russia agreed to support Turkey if it was attacked by another of the world powers
  • a further revoltion by Mehmet Ali culminated in the signing of the Straits Convention 1841
  • as a result of pressure from the other great powers, this weakened Russia's arrangments with the Turks
  • all of the major european powers conceded that Turkey should ban all foreign warships from entering the Straits during periods of international tensions
  • to clarify the confusion over the 1833 agreement, Russian warships were banned from the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus
  • this aggrieved Nicholas I
  • knew that Russia was not really in a position to go to war with any of the other european powers
  • proceeded to use diplomacy to ensure that Russia's interests in the East were preserved

short-term origins

  • by the middle of the 19th century a dispute between Russia and France arose over Orthodox Christian and Catholic rights and duties in the Holy Lands (part of the Ottoman Empire)
  • arguments over this issue escalated
  • sparked the beginning of the Crimean War
  • before the squabble erupted Russia had persuaded the sultan to allow special priviledges to be granted to Orthodox Christians in the Holy Lands
  • considered fair as Orthodox Christians represented a majority in the region and contributed much to the local economy
  • 1851- this arrangement was challenged by Charles Louis Napoleon, the first president of the French Republic and Emperor of France from 1852 to 1870
  • stated that according to a rather obscure treaty of 1740, the…


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