Socio Cultural Studues

  • Created by: RJ_
  • Created on: 17-05-17 12:19

Physical Activity

Physical activity: movement that gets the body moving and heart pumping

Exercise: Physical activity done which requires effort to improve health and fitness

Healthy Balanced lifestyle: Day to day life that has quality and wellness which includes, Diet, exercise, injury prevention, sleep, hygeine, stress, relationships

Lifetime sport: Enjoyed over a lifetime e.g. tennis

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Benefits of regular participation in sport

  • Physical benefits: to do with the body (loose weight)
  • Mental benefits: to do with the mind (stress relief)
  • Personal benefits: to do with self (improved self esteem)
  • Social benefits: to do with others (having positive relationships)
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The need for regular participation in physical act

Sedentary lifestyle: modern technology has reduced the need to move and exercise (cars, lifts, washing machines, TVS). More hours being spent infront of TV.  young people are not being as active and not getting their 60 mins exercise a day which is leading to obeisty and a non healthy active lifestyle.

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The barriers facing young people in their particip

  • Lack of oppertunity (taking part based on time and money)
  • Lack of provision (availibility of facilities)
  • Lack of esteem (confidence inself)
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The definitions, characteristics and benefits of..

Physical Recreation

  • Activities done for a variety of reasons at a fun level
  • It is available to all
  • In free time
  • Limited funding
  • enjoyment
  • Taking part not winning

Outdoor recreation

  • Activites done in the natural environment ( a walk)
  • Escape from modern life, thoughts and feelings
  • respect for environment
  • Gaining a sense of adventure (sense of excitment)
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The definitions, characteristics and benefits of..

Physical Education

  • Learning of physical, personal, qualitive values through schools
  • Oppertunities (GCSE, A levels)
  • Specialist staff
  • Prepare for a career in sport
  • Enjoyment
  • Healthy active lifestyle

Outdoor education

  • Learning in and about the natural environment
  • as part of structured school programme
  • Special trips
  • Specialist staff
  • Physical health and skill learning
  • Preperation for active leisure (love the outdoors)
  • Appreciation of environment
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The definitions, characteristics and benefits of..


  • Organised competitive skilful physical activity, which requires commitment and fair play.
  • Is for those who have physical prowess (skill) and physical endeavour (effort and skill)
  • It is at a designated time and length
  • At a designated place with purpose built facilities
  • High commitment and competition
  • sponpership and media
  • Sportsman ship = Fair play
  • Gamesman ship = Stretching the rules to gain an unfair advantage
  • Deviance = seriously breaking the rules and norms
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The United Kingdom

Ethnic sports: Highland games, Shrovetide football, cheese rolling


  • Festive/ Ritual
  • Traditional
  • Locas
  • Social
  • Tourism
  • Annual
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Nineteenth century Public Schools

  • Queen victoria reigned for 65 years
  • Improved transport
  • upper middle class boys attend elite, fee paying, boarding schools.
  • Working class improved

Public Schools help to promote and organise sports and games

  • Funding - Build specialist facilities, employ specialist coaches
  • Plenty of time to practise
  • usually plenty of space
  • games were compulsory every day
  • Boys involved in organisation
  • Fixtures

How did team team games spread

  • ex-pupils from these schools took on major leadership roles in society spreading the passion for team games.
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Traditional Amateur to a more professional approac

  • 1900- amateurs took part in sport for love not money. They could afford to spend time away from work playing sports and games for enjoyment.
  • Working class men could not afford to miss work. If they had great talent they might get a chance to pay full time (professional)
  • Professionals in modern sport involves full time commitement planning and high levels of funding.
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The move from amateurism

  • Mass of participation - more people involved in sport
  • Sporting exercise - Winning medals
  • Organisation of sport- national goverining bodies are working towards more smooth running and professional systems to match modern day sport.
  • Government support - Government of UK does not have an outstanding reputation for supporting sport. However national lottery
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United States of America


  • Powerful, relatively young nation
  • Native indians are the original population
  • Sport is driven by commercelisation
  • Private and corporate businesses use sport to promote products and achieve good will
  • Individualism - Each person is responsible for their own success
  • Over 250 years has been the land of oppertunity
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Nature of Sport

  • Result is what matters
  • 'win ethic' dominates sport at all levels
  • Winning is more important than the taking part
  • 2nd place is not an option
  • Lombardi 'Winning isnt the most important thing, it is the only thing'
  • American dream - ' Success, freedom, equality, and security' Gets you fom rags to riches. Success depends on ability and hard work. Anyone can achieve the dream (age, gender, ethnic backround)
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  • Sport=Big business
  • Companies use it to promote their products and achieve good will
  • Few performers become rich and are on the best multi million dollar contracts.
  • TV and advertising fund the top level professional sport with sponsership and the media benefiting from it.
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American Football

Origins and Nature

  • Game developed in the influential universities (yale)
  • in 1800's there were no accepted rules


  • Play was rough so some unis band it
  • in 1869 unis played in 1st intercollegiate match
  • 25 players per side (handling carrying was not allowed)
  • Toughness, endeavour and courage
  • After adaptions and modifications american football developed its own rules, tatics and style to play
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American Football (2)


  • By 1900 the game had developed into a conflict violent game with survival and success dependant on physical force
  • It is a tough collision sport
  • Each player has a specialist role
  • Physical contact is allowed between players who are not in possesion of the ball
  • Players must wear special protective equipment


  • Very common
  • Dangers and expensive equipment make it impractical for recreational play
  • Saftey equipment has increased levels of violence as players can hurl themselves at one another
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American Football (3)


  • Multi billion dollar business
  • NFL is a group of companies with teams either privately or run as public companies
  • Teams are run and bought at franchises
  • Competition between TV networks for coverage night inflates the cost of NFL


  • Professionals do not play on saturday's to give universities their own share of TV coverage

The Super Bowl

  • Championship game of the NFL
  • Half time is an hour long and tv takes advantage of huge TV audience. 30 second advert is 2.6 million dollars.
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  • Native people where Aboriginals
  • Has a small poplulation for the size of the country with only 21 million compared to the usa have 300 million and Uk 60 million
  • Britian colonisaton occured in Australis and they have still adapted to British sports
  • In 1901 it became an independant country
  • Australia has been commited to a policy of multiculturalism since the aboloition of the 'white australian'
  • It is climate favourable for sport and activities (better weather than UK) hardly any cancelations of matches
  • There is loads of space, beaches, mountains, deserts so it is more open to oppertunity and varied choice (surfing, skiing)
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Australia (2)

Nature of Sport

  • Government fun sport in australia
  • Healthy economy
  • australians happy to spend money on sport
  • Elite sport is highly commercialised (aussie rules - multi million dollar)
  • Sporting success has given them internation recognition (sydney olympics)
  • Success of national teams (netball, rugby, cricket, hockey, swimming, olympics)
  • Role models (ian thorpe - swimmer, shane warn- cricket)


  • Large % of TV dedicated to sport
  • massive new paper coverage
  • School/uni sport shown on TV in some states ( very high status of sport in schools)
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Australia (3)

Aussie Rules

  • Played on gigantic cricket ovals with 9 officials and 22 players per side.
  • Fourth most played team sport in australia
  • Australians living and travelling abroad hae taken the game with them
  • Widely taught in australian schools
  • game appeals to all
  • played by men or women
  • It is the most highly attended spectator sport in Australia.
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Participation of Excellence

The sports development pyramid

  • Foundation (bottem) - Young school children. Cognitive stage. 1st attempt at sport
  • Participation - school team involvement. regular involvement of extra curriculumn. Start to choose sports which become hobbies
  • Performance - District/county level. Emphisis on competition/winning. Dedicated performers who are keen to improve regular training
  • Excellence - elite performers. Highly skilled, fully commited, high levels of coaching, element of sport science, specific facilities, coaching, modern technology, media coverage.

Limitations to improvement - discrimination, stereotypes, past experiences

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Participation of Excellence (2)

Funding for Elite performers

  • Public funding (gov)
  • UK sport (lottery funding)
  • Private funding (sponsership)
  • Voluntary contributions (charities)

Oppertunity, Provision, Esteem

Oppertunity - having the chance to take part

 Provision - Hvaing the conditions or physical tools to take part

 Esteem - Having the confidence and belief and appreciation

 Give examples

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Sport Organisations

Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)

  • Part of the government that gives money to sport.
  • It decides how lottery money is split between things ( UK sport, olympics)
  • Alot of money used to come from the lottery for sport however this has decreased over the past years.

UK sport

  • Responsible for developing elite sport in the UK.
  • They manage and distrubute money on where they want elitesm to occur.
  • Run elite coaching programmes
  • Relationships with international sporting companies
  • co-ordinates work to attract major sporting events
  • They manage the Talented Athlete Scholarship system
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Sport Organisations (2)

Developed national institutes of sport

  • To provide Britians Best performers with the practical support needed to compete and win at the highest level
  • Provide: Nutritional advice, Sport science, performance analysis and planning, psychology, physiotherapy, career education and lifestyle advice, sports massage, sports vision.
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Home country organisations

Sport England

  • Aim: To get people more active and involved
  • What do they do: promotes community sport, promotes volunteering, coaching, leadership, focuses on priority groups.
  • They work closely with local, regional and national partners and brings together the NGB's, coaches and clubs to increase participation.
  • Creates initiatives such as Sporting championships, where role models go into schools to promote sport
  • Develops school and clubs links
  • Responsible for funding elite sports which are not part of the olympics (netball)
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Home country organisations (2)

Sport Council For Nothern Ireland

  • Aim: increase particaption especially in young people, improve performance, and improve management of sport
  • They increase particiaption in disadvantaged areas and people with disabilities
  • Improve knowledge and skills enabling more people to make a contribution in sport.


  • Aim: To increase particopation and improve performances in Scottish Sport
  • They develop sporting people, organisations and facilities
  • Create pathways of oppertunity for people to take part
  • Tackle discrimintation and promote equality of oppertunity ensuring safe and fair particiaption
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Home country organisations (3)

Sports Council For Wales

  • Aim: To get more people active more often
  • Get particulary active young people
  • Active communities ( adults active 30 mins a day and children 60 mins a day)
  • High level performance and excellence focusing on talented performers
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Government initiatives

The national Cirriculum - 1988 - Compulsory up to 16 which schools have to adibe by it.

  • Competence (Body and mind skilfulness)
  • Performance
  • Creativity (promblem solving and tactics)
  • Healthy active lifestyle (physical activity and health)
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PESSCL (Physcial eduction, school sports and club

  • Aim: Increase participation in young children
  • 2 hours physical education in national cirriculum every week (if this couldnt be met then club links where there to enable them to get the 2 hours)
  • Competition managers were employed to ensure kids that werent getting two hours of p.e Could.
  • SSCO's were part of this strategy. They were bought in to increase quality of sport in primary schools.
  • Leadership: 'Step into sport' - encourage young people 14-16 to become leaders and work in the primary schools
  • Schools sport colleges - Were bought in to give a base areas around the country to develop sport. It is a hub site for partnership schools to attend activities
  • Gifted and talented: Helps promosing young performers to reach their potential. (identify, telent identification, provision of multi skill academies, support)
  • Kite marking: awarded to schools who have developed this strategy (Activemark, sportsmark, Sports Partnership Mark)
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Sport: raising the game

  • Resulted in national institutes of sport

Sporting future for all

  • Better communication and co ordination between schools, local clubs and organisations

Game plan

  • Highlighted the importance of sport and physical activity both socially and economically (health benefits)

National Sports foundation

  • Encourage partnerships between private investors and community sports projects
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National Governing Bodies

  • Each sport has their own NGB
  • Swimming (ASA) Football (FA) Tennis (LTA) Rugby (RFU)
  • They all have the same aims but relevant to certain sports
  • Visions of what they want are written out in a whole sport plan
  • This plan must include strategies which should: increase particpation, increase club routes to elites, and increase international success
  • NGB fundings come from their county councils as a result of their WSP
  • By achieving their targe they will get funded more money
  • Some sports depend massively on this where as other sports which are high in the media recieve money from other places.
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Funding of Physical Activity

  • Public (funding for government, local authorites - national lottery)
  • Voluntary (donations, charities or private clubs)
  • Private (Businesses, companies and investors - sponsership)

The national Lottery

  • Since 1994 has had a huge impact on british sport- primary source
  • Provide grants of 200 millon annually
  • These grants are distrubuted by UK sport and the 4 home country sport councils to encourage mass participation and sporting excellence.
  • The world calss pathway programme and world class events programme are funded by national lottery
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Funding of Physical Activity (2)

World Class Pathway Programme

  • Gives three different levels of support to elite olympic performers
  • 1) World class poduim funding ( For likely medalists, based on olympic results, competitive record- Distrubuted for NGB'S)
  • 2) World Class development ( For performers who are about 6 years away from a medal)
  • 3) World Class talent (High gifted performers with world class talent selected by NGB's. Who are a max of 8 years away from a likely medal)

World Class events programme

  • Supports the bidding for and staging of major sporting events.
  • The idea is to give sporting, social, cultural and economic benefits to the hos nation via hosting major sporting events.
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Sponsership and the media

The roles of Media

  • To inform - About a match result, team analysis, performer behaviour
  • To educate - On global sporting issues, sports, skills, coaching techniques
  • To entertain - with live coverage of an event or information about private lives
  • To advertise - directly or indirectly through sponsership
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Positives of Media

  • Life long involvement has been increased
  • Myths and stereotypes have been crushed
  • Sport taken more seriously
  • Minority sports can be highlighted within media
  • Technology offers slow motion replays, freeze frames.
  • Positive role models
  • Balanced healthy lifestyle promoted
  • More money to sport- to encourage participation
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Negatives of Media

  • Minority groups arent always covered
  • Certain channels unavailable unless you pay
  • Increase win at all costs ethic - loss of enjoyment
  • Audience may suffer bordem
  • Reduces participation - due to armchair spectators
  • Myths and stereotypes can be reinforced
  • They do not always potray it in a good way
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The relationship between Sport, Sponsership and th

  • Golden triangle

Sport and media (tv, internet, newspapers, radio)

  • Sports available 24/7
  • Celebrities and role models created
  • Low profile sports get little media attention so little sponsership
  • The relationship increases the potential for match fixings and other examples of deviance

Sport and Sponsership (funding of individuals, teams or events to raise company exposure and profit)

  • Sponsership increases popularity of sport
  • Money from sponsership can help inprove spectator provision
  • Powerful sports such as football have some control over their sponsers

Sporsership and Media

  • When sports and covered by the media spondership increases (england netball)
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Performance-Enhancing Products

  • 100% ME - the programme that promotes drug-free competitive sport throughout the UK by providing high quality information on anti-doping and promoting postive attitudes and values
  • The world Anti-doping Agency (WADA) Organisation that promotes the fight against doping in sports at international level

Reasons for use

  • Physiological - To build muscles, increase energy, increase o2 transport, loose weight, reduce injury
  • Psychological - Steady nerves, increase aggression and motivation
  • Social - Pressure to win as this can earn them big money. Belief that everyone else is doing it.
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Performance-Enhancing Products (2)


  • Morality - can be addictive - can cause death -suppress growth - lead to liver and heart problems - depression
  • Legality - against the law
  • Role modelling - Gives a bad example to others, and gives a bad image to sport.

Possible solutions

  • Stricter - more out of season testing
  • Stricter punishement and life bans
  • Educational programmes
  • More efficient effective testing programmes
  • Role models to reinforce no drugs
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Performance-Enhancing Products (3)

The impact of performance of modern technological products

  • Increased safety
  • Increased comfort
  • Improved performance
  • eg ( shoes, clothing, medicine, materials, motion analysis, officiating, safety)
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Violence in Sport

 Possible causes of violence in players

  • Crowd behaviour
  • Weapons (sticks bats clubs)
  • Dissapiontment and frustration
  • Provacation (chanting abuse from crowds)
  • Nature of the game ( A contact game is likely to lead to aggresion - ice hockey)
  • Importance of result ( Team rivalry - position)
  • Emotional intensity (media hype)

Possible solutions to the problem

  • Technology (video playbacks to assess unfair play)
  • More severe penalties (yellow, red cards)
  • Education (NGBS to reinforce fair play in performers
  • Greater number (more referees, umpires)
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Violence in Sport (2)

Possible causes of crowd violence

  • Violence (copied from how players act)
  • Pre match hype ( by media)
  • Controversial decisions (by officials)
  • Chanting and abuse from rival fans
  • Peer pressure
  • The score of the result
  • Poor provsion ( poor policing or stewarding)
  • Racism or religion
  • Alcohol/drugs

Solutions of Crowd Violence

  • Control of alcohol
  • Improvement of facilities
  • Promotion of sporting events as family entertainment
  • Use of CCTV
  • More severe punishments
  • seperation of fans 
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The Olympic Games

Backround in the 19th century

  • Baron Pierre de Coubertin (wealthy french man who wanted to educate young people and bring them together to increase international understanding)
  • He was impressed by the spirit of english public school and values of the games, He wanted simular character development for france.

British Olympic Association 

  • The principles of the game are: To contribute to building a peacful and better world by educating youth through sport. With a spirit of friendship, and fair play
  • The modern olympic was designed to link sport with culture and education
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The Olympic Games (2)

Aims and Philosophy 

  • To bring balance between body, mind and effort for the joy it can bring
  • Role modelling to educate and inspire others
  • Unity, friendship and respect for others
  • Equality
  • Stregthening of sport
  • Appreciation of physicall excellence
  • The 5 rings are to symbolise the coming together of the 5 world continents with the white backround representing peace. 

 The internation Olympic Committee (IOC)

  • Was founded in paris 1894.
  • It is an internations non governmental, non profit organisation and recieves no public money.
  • It is funded by profits from marketing, and tv.
  • Members include: athletes, administrators, lawyers and journalists.
  • Their main responsibility is to supervise the organisation of the summer and winter games. Tries to ensure that commercialisation is well managed and controlled.
  • It makes decisions about future olympic games.
  • The IOC supports the running of each Olympic games by national olympic committees (NOCs) such as British olympic association (BOA)
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The Olympic Games (3)

The Britsh Olympic Association (BOA)

  • Promotes the olympic games throughout the UK
  • Organises visits to the host cities before the games
  • Enters team GB to the games
  • Helps to select the team
  • Helps athletes and NGB's prepare to perform in the games
  • Manages team GB (organisation, transport, team wear)
  • Fund raises
  • Appoints offical sponsers for 2012
  • Works on olympic bids
  • Organises olympic days in UK
  • Promotes good public relations
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The Olympic Games (4)

Commercialisation of the Olympics

  • It used to be an amateur games however this provided problems for certain athletes in countries.
  • Some athletes were well funded however britsh athletes were still running for love and lagged behind. They had to commit more time and effort to training and therefore less time and effort into paid work
  • The first olympic games to be associated with Commercialisation was the LA games 1984. Previous games (canade) had lost millions through the hosting of the games.
  • In the 1984 games Peter uberroth charged huge sums of money for tv and radio rights, persauded private companes to build major facilities and invited sponsers to invest.  This therefore created a huge global audience to make games attractive to sponsers.
  • Shop window effect could also be used
  • Appointed companies become part of the olympic partner (TOP) programme which is managed by the IOC. In return for investment they can use the olympics logo on their products .
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The Olympic Games (5)

The olympic Games as a vehicle for nation building

  • Showcase a country and its politial system. (china used beijing olympics to show its economic rise and emerge as a world power)
  • With sporting success it is able to increase the popularity of a government (Mexico - the black power salute)
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The Olympic Games (6)

Londong 2012

  • Potential increase in participation in sport among young people
  • Improved health and fitness
  • Improve feel-good factor
  • Improved road and rail networks
  • Income from increased tourism
  • Business profit
  • Increased funding and investment
  • World class facilities
  • A higher profile for sport
  • improved organisation of sport
  • Reduced crime
  • London promoted as a business area
  • increased employment
  • Arguements against: High council tax bills, few long term jobs, focus on elitism, soaring costs, Increased housing prices
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