OCR AS Level PE - Aquiring movement skills

A complete set of revision cards for the AS Level OCR PE topic Aquiring movement skills


What is a skill?

  • a descriptive word: for how consistent, successful and technically correct a performer is
  • a specific act: e.g badminton serve
  • a series of movements with a clearly defined objective: e.g volleyballKnapps definition = 'skill is the learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both'

Characteristics of a skill:

  • Efficient - e.g swimmer has a streamlined body position through water etc
  • Consistent - e.g volleyball player gets their serve in the court every time
  • Fluent - e.g gymnast can link  movenments of a sequence without stopping
  • Asthetic - e.g trampolinist performs movements well that flow and look good
  • Learned - e.g. the tennis serve has been practiced over a period of time.
  • Goal directed - e.g performer knows what they are setting out to achieve
  • Follows a technical model - e.g comparison to a demonstration model
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Types of skill

Cognitive - A skill that involves the mental/intellectual ability of the performer - e.g working out the tactics to use against an opponent who is very good at the net in a game of tennis

Perceptual - A skill that involves the detection and interpretation of information - e.g who to pass to, where the pass is to go and how hard to hit the pass in a game of hockey

Motor - A skill that involves movement and muscular control - e.g swimming lengths of front crawl

Perceptual/Psychomotor - involves the cognitive, perceptual and motor aspects of skill. They are the most common forms of skill in PE - e.g determining who to pass to, where to pass to, how hard to hit the pass and actually hitting the pass in a game of hockey

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Analysing movement skills

We use continua to analyse movement skills. Continuum is an imaginary scale between two extremes that shows gradual increase/ decrease in a number or characteristics

There are 6 continua:

  • Mucular involvement
  • Environmental involvement
  • continuity
  • pacing
  • difficulty
  • organisation

Movement skills are usually comprised of several parts that are referred to as sub-routines e.g breastroke consists of the following: body position, arm action, leg action and breathing. These sub-routines make up the movement skill

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The 6 continua

Muscular involvement:

  • gross -large muscular movement, little concern for precision (harmmerthrow)
  • Fine -intricate movementssmall muscle groups/accuracy(wrist action in bowl)

Environmental involvement:

  • Open -affected by the environment,teammates/opponents(netball goal shot)
  • Closed -not affected by environment, follow techincal model(gymnast vault)


  • Discrete- has a clear beginning and end e.g.a penalty in football
  • Serial- made up of several discrete elements. e.g trampoline sequence
  • Continuous- Has no definite beginning or end e.g cycling
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The 6 continua (2)


  • Internally paced- performer controls and determines movement e.g javelin
  • Externally paced - externally controled/determined movement e.g pass


  • Simple - Little info processing/decisions to make, samll number of sub-routines, speed and timing are not critical, no feedback needed e.g sprint
  • Complex - High perceptual load, many decisions made, made up of sub-routines, spped and timing are critical and feedback is needed e.g serve


  • Low - made up of easily separated sub-routines, individual. e.g swimming
  • High - sub-routines are linked, difficult to break up e.g golf swing
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Application of classification in determining pract

We classify skills because it tells us:

  • how to teach skills
  • how we can improve skills
  • how we can practice skills

The conditions in which a skill is learned and practices should:

  • be the same as those in which it is normally performed
  • be determined by the nature ot the skill
  • ensure that positive transfer will occur

Practice conditions are determined by the nature of the skill and in order to establish this several aspects need to be considered. This is called task analysis.

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Practice types

Varied - the practice environment is constantly changing. Techniques and the body shape adapted to suit the environment. e.g 3 versus 2 offensive basketball drill. Advantages: provides the opportunity to develop decision making and perceptual skills, Improves positional play, selective attention, detecting warning signals and make info processing faster. Helps to develop schema. Practice conditions should be realistic.(open skills)

Fixed - the environment remains the same, stable. The skill is repeated causing the learner to over learn or groove the skill. The stereotyped action becomes habitual. e.g practising drills for the long jump. Advantages: the skill become overlearned and stereotyped actions. The movement action never changes, Programmes from and attention can be directed elsewhere. (closed)

Part practice - working on and perfecting isolated sub-routines. Once all the sub-routines have been perfected they arae put together. e.g. practising body position, leg action, arm action and breathing of swimming strokes and then putting them together. Advantages: Reduces the possibility of overload. reduces complexity. Good for skills where there is a danger element. Good for success/motivation (discrete, serial, low organisation, high complexity skills)

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practice types (2)

Progressive part - Learn part 1 - perform part 1. Learn part 2 - perform parts 1+ 2. Learn part 3 - perform parts 1,2,3. learn part 4 - perform parts 1,2,3 +4. e.g lay up shot in basketball. Triple jump. Advantage: good for skills low in organsisation. good for serial skills (serial and low organisational skills)

Whole practice - the skill is taught without breaking it down in to subroutines. e.g. basketball dribble, cartwheerl or golf swing. Advantages: Good for skills that are highly organised or continuour. Allows the learner to get the flow and timing (kinaesthesis) of the skill. Also saves time. Ideally, all skills should be taught by this method. (high in organisation, continuous and low in complexity skills)

Whole part whole - learner first tries out to get the feel of theperformance. Conach identifies weak parts and practises them. Once perfected the whole skill is tried. e.g gymnastic/trampolinging sequence. Advantages: learner gets a feel for the movement, allows time to be spent on weaker elements. Saves time.

Simplification - tasks high in organsisation/complexity are made easy. e.g short tennis where equipment/are is modified. Advantage: allows learner to be successful. Can help remove danger. learners are physically/mentally capable

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Abilities usually improve up to a certain age and deteriorate as we get older.

Schmidt says that ability is 'an inherited, relatively enduring trait that underlies or supports carious kinds of motor and cognitive activities or skills. Abilities are thought of as being largely genetically determined.


  • Learned - innate/genetically determined - we are born with abilities which are determined by the genes we inherit from our parents.
  • Can be modifies with practice - stable and enduring - abilities tend to remain unchanged but can be affected by our experiences and are developed by maturation
  • Depends on several abilities - underpins/suports many skills - each skill usually needs several supporting abilities if we are going to be able to learn them effectively
  • The are infinite in number. There are presently about 50 identified abilities
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Types of ability - gross motor ability

There are 2 types of ability: gross motor and perceptual abilities.

Gross motor abilities(physical proficiency abilities/ movement physical fitness):

  • Dynamic strength - exerting muscular force over a period of time - pressups
  • Static strength - maximum strength exerted against an external object
  • Explosive strength - efficient energy use in short burst - starting blocks
  • Stamina - sustaining maximum effort, cardiovascular system - marathon
  • Extent flexibility - flexing/stretching the trunk and back muscles-touching toes
  • Dynamic flexibility - Making several flexing movements. - high knee sprints
  • Gross body coordination - organisation of several moving body parts -bar
  • Gross body equilibrium - keeping balance using internal senses- handstand
  • Trunk strength - strength of abdominals - sit-ups
  • Eye-hand coordination - precise use of hands - hitting tennis ball
  • Static balance - balancing on a stable surface with no movement - one leg
  • Dynamic balance - balancing on a moving surface/when moving - skiing
  • eye-foot coordination - precise use of the feet - kicking a ball
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Types of ability - perceptual motor ability

Perceptual motor abilities usually involve processing of information, making decisions and putting the decisions into action. These actions are usually movements.

Perceptual motor abilities:

  • Mutli-limb coordination - being able to organise the movement of several limbs at one time - swimming frontcrawl
  • Respose orientation - choosing quickly the position to which an action should be made - foreward drive in tennis
  • Speed of movement - being able to make gross rapid movements. e.g sprinting
  • Response time - being able to respond quickly to a stimulus - sprint startManual dexterity - Being able to make rapid arm-hand movements involving objects at speed - catching a ball in cricket
  • Rate control - being able to change the speed and direction of response accurately - continuously moving target on computer game
  • Aiming - being able to aim accurately at a small object - putting in golf
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What do abilities do?

Abilities underpin or support skills. We need several abilities in order to learn a skill effectively - handstand - balance, coordination, strength. If we have good levels of these abilities we should be able to learn to do a handstand and other similar gymnastic activities and be able to do them well.

Natural athletes:

There is no such things as a natural athlete/game plyer. Some people many have good levels of abilities that are required to be successful in a group of activities (because theyre similar requiring the samecombination of abilities) These people will still need to learn the skill though.

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How are abilities developed

Abilities can be developed during early childhood if:

  • children are given a wide range of experiences
  • children are given the opportunity to practise
  • children recieve expert teaching and coaching
  • children have access to facilites and equipment
  • children have the support of their friends and families who many also be suitable role models
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Motor skill development

Motor skill development foes through several key stages:

  • Young children use their abilities to learn basic or rudimentary movement skills - e.g walking running skipping pushing stretching and balancing. These basic movements form the basis on which further development will be based
  • During the early primary school years (4-9) children are physically and mentally capable of learning skills and are also highly motivated and enthusiastic. Expert teaching is need in order that the childs basic or rudimentary movement skills can be further developed into fundamental motor skills.Each FMS has a sub-routine against which success can be measured they have definite coaching point that can be used to ensure that children are learning correctlyExamples of FMS are: catching, kicking, running, dodging, overarm throwing, vertical jumping, two-handed arm strike, ball bounce, leap and forehand strike
  • Once these FMS have been learned and mastered they can be developed into sport-specific skills,This is done by adapting and practicing each one so that it matches the criteria of the sport.
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Basic model of information processing

There are three stage of information processing:

1. Stimulus identification. Firstly detecting that there is a stimulus(information) and then interpreting it. e.g there is a ball coming and then determining its speed, flight and direction

2. Response selection. Having interpreted the information(speed, height & direction) of the ball, deciding what to do, that is, move in the appropriate direction and put the appropriate limb in position

3. Response programming. This is when the information is sent via the nervous system to the appropriate muscles to carry out the appropriate movement

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Baic processes of information processing

  • Display: The surrounding environment the performer is in, including the ball the opponents the team mates the teach, spectators, coach
  • Sensory input: Senses detect info which stimulates their receptors. Senses involved are vision, hearing and proprioreception(the sense that allowsus to know what position our body is in, what our muscles and joints are doing and to feel things involved in our performance: kicking a ball. It consists of touch, kinaesthesis and equilibrium
  • Perception: The process that interprets and makes sense of the info received. It consists of 3 elements: detection(stimulus is present), comparison(to stimuli in long term memory) and recognition (matching it to one found in long-term memory)
  • Memory: This plays an important role in both the perceptual and decision-making processes. It consists of short term memory stores(STSS), short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM)
  • Decision making: (translatory mechanism) one the info has been interpreted the corred response has to be put into action in the form of a motor programme
  • Effector mechanism - the motor programme is put into action by sending impulses via the nervous system to the appropriate muscles to carry out the required actions
  • Feedback: Once the moto programme has been put into action the display changes and new info is created which is known as feeback
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Serial and parrallel processing

Serial processing of information is procesed in stages e.g a trampolining sequence:

  • jump with 180 degree turn
  • pike straddle jump
  • swivel hips
  • pike jump
  • seat drop
  • backdrop

Parallel processing of information is where the processes occur at the same time e.g receiving a pass. the information relating to the following aspects of the pass are process at the same time

  • speed of the ball processed
  • height og the ball processed
  • direction of the ball processed
  • position ot team mates processed
  • position of opposition processed
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Memory is important in:

  • Interpreting info when it compares infor to that of our previous experiences
  • determining the motor programme we are going to use to implement the action

Memory has 3 components:

1. Short term sensory stores: All info is held for a  short time (0.25-1s) capacity is very large. Important info is attended to(selective attention) and that which is not it ignored and will then be lost to be replaced with new info. The perceptual mechanism determines important info(recognition aspect of perception)

2. Short term memory: referred to as the 'work place', info is compared to previously learned(comparison aspect of perception). info stored for 30s if not rehearsed/repeated. has a capacity of 5-9 pieces of info. increased by chunking

3. Long term memory: stores info that has been well learned and practised, has a large capacity, info is stored for a very long time. Motor programmes are stored in the LTM after practise. When stoed info is retrieved and compared to new info and found to be the same this is the recognition aspect of perception

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Srategies to improve retention and retrieval

There are strategies that can be applied to help store and remember info:

  • Rehearsal/practice
  • Association/linking
  • Simplicity
  • Chunking
  • Uniqueness
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Enjoyment
  • Meaningful
  • Imagery
  • Organisation
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Reaction time

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Reaction Time

  • Reaction time: this is the time from the stimulus occurring to the performer starting to move in response to it
  • Movement time: this is the time taken from starting the movement to completing it
  • Response time: this is the time rom the onset of the stimulus to the completion of the movement

e.g using the 100 metres sprint

starter goes off --->sprinter pushes on the blocks = reaction

sprinter pushing on the blocks---->sprinter crossing finish line = movement

starters gun goes off ----->sprinter crosses finish line = response

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Factors affecting reaction times

  • Age
  • Arousal
  • Sensory system used
  • Personality
  • limb used
  • gender

Reaction time can also be affected by external factors:

  • If a warning is given, e.g 'set' in sprint start
  • Intensiy of stimulus, e.g orange ball for playing footbhall in the snow
  • The likelihoof of the stimulus occuring - if the stimulus has a good chance of happening, the reaction will be quicker.
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Choice reaction time

Choice reaction time occurs where there is more than one stimulus and/or more than response. It occurs in many sporting situation

Hick's Law states that choice reaction time increases linearly as the number of stimulus/choice alternatives increases

Hick's Law has important implications in that we should always try to:

  • disguise our intentions and therefore increase the number of possible alternatives that our opponents will have to select from. This will increase their reaction time
  • pick up 'cues' as to our opponents intended response in order that this reduces the number of alternatives and therefore reduces our reaction times
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Improving performer's response time:

  • Practice
  • Cue detection
  • mental rehearsal
  • Experience
  • Stimulus
  • Warm-up
  • Level of arousal/motivation
  • Concentration/selective attention
  • Improving physical fitness

The above can also be aided by anticipation, which is a very important method of improving both simple and choice reaction times. Anticipation comes in 2 forms:

spatial - predicting what will happen. e.g a cricket batsman detecting the fast bowlers slower ball

temporal - predicting when it will happend e.g the sprinter identifying the period of time between the 'set' and the gun going off

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Psychological Refractory Period (RPR)

  • This is the negative side of anticipation.
  • If we anticipate something and then get it wrong, our reactions are slower.
  • If we detect a stimulus and are processing the information when a second stimulus arrives, we cannot attend to the second stimulus until we have finished processing the first.
  • This delay makes our reaction time longer and the delay is known as the psychological refractory period (PRP)
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Feedback is the information received by the performer during the course of the movement or as a result of it. There are several types of feedback:

Intrinsic - comes from the proprioreceptors and kinaesthesis. Concerns the feel of the movement e.g the feel of balance during a handstand. Very important for experienced performers, but novices need to be made aware of the need to develop this form of feedback

Extrinsic - feedback from external sources. e.g teacher/coach. Received via sight and hearing and is used to uspport intrinsi feedback. v. important for beginners

Concurrent(continuous) - recieved during the movement. It is intrinsic and is generater by the proprioreceptors/kinaethesis e.g gymnast knowing that they are balanced correctly

Terminal - Feedback given after the movement is completed or located e.g coach discussing the match at the next training session. It is extrinsic

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Feedback (2)

Positive - The movement is successful and the feeback reinforces the learning, Can be intrinsic or extrinsic e.g badminton coach praises performer when they serve correctly

Negative - the movement is incorrevt/unsuccessful and the feedback is used to make it successful. Can be intrinsic or extrinsic e.g badminto serve lands outside service area

Knowledge of performance - Concerns the quality of the movement. Can be external (from teacher/coaches) or internal from proprioreceptors/kinasethesis. Could be from discussing the performance or watching a video. Important for experienced performers.

Knowledge of truth - Concerns the outcome of our movements and is extrinsic. It can be positive and negative. Usually arises from teachers/coaches actually seeing the result(ball going over the boundary for six) or watching the movement on video. Very important in early stages of learning and for improving perfomance.

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Why is feedback important?

  • The performer knows what to do to improve
  • Correct actions are reinforced
  • Incorrect actions stopped and bad habits are prevented
  • Performer is motivated and their confidence is boosted

Feedback should be:

  • Compared to previous performances
  • related to/specifiv to the performance
  • eaily understood by the performer
  • in manageable amounts for the performer to deal with
  • linked to goals if it is to be effective
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Motor programmes

  • Motor skills are physical actions
  • control involves the manipulation and adjustment of movement to produce the required skill
  • A motor programme or exercutive motor programme (EMP) is an overall plan of the whole skill or pattern of movement
  • The plan is stored in the long term memory (LTM)
  • The plan is adjusted and updated each time the skill is performed
  • The EMP comprises sub-routines. These are mini skills often performed in sequence. Collectively they make up the whole skill
  • Sub-routines appear to be performed fluently and automatically when the skill has been grooved or over-learned.
  • Automatic execution of skill takes place when the performer is at the expert stage
  • An expert is said to be at the autonomous phase of learning

There is a hieracrchial and sequential organisation of a skill. Hierarchal means an order of importance. The EMP is more important than the supporting sub-routines. Sequential means that the sub-rutines are oftern performed in a particular order

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Low organisation

  • If a skill is low in organisation, it can be divided easily into sub-routines e.g throwing skills like the discus and javelin
  • Each subroutine can be taught and practised seperately. You need to learn three practise methods that can be used for a skill of low organisation.

1. Part practice: each sub-routines are taught seperately and in isolation until the whole skill has been put together

2. Progressive part practice: two sub-routines are taught seperately and then practised together before teaching a third sub-routine in isolation. The combination of three sub-routines is then practised as one skill

3. Whole part whole: the skill is practised as a whole. One sub-routine is taken out and practised seperately. The skill is then performed as a whole.

Sub-routines, particularly in throwing skills, such as the javelin and sidcus, can often be taught in reverse order. The practise method is called backward chaining.

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High organisation

  • If a skill is hight in organisation, it cannot be divided into sub-routines.One sub-routine cannot be taught as an isolated component
  • You need to learn two practie methods that can be used for a skill of high organisation

1. Whole practice: The skill is performed as a whole e.g sprinting or dribbline a football

2. Task simplification: Making the task earsier that it really is, e.g short tennis simplifies the rudiments of the major game

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Motor control

Motor control involves manipulation and often the adjustment of the body during performance in order to bring about the desired response. An explanation of motor skill control is the open loop and close loop theory.

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Open loop and closed loop theory

This theory extend to three levels

Level 1:

  • The EMP is stored as an overall plan in the long-term memory
  • The emp is triggeres by the situation and is transferred almost spontaneously to the working muscle
  • The open loop is termed the memory trace
  • Its function is to produce the initial movement of the skill and reference is made to feedback
  • for a skill of rapid execution such as a golf drive the movement is so rapid that feedback cannot be referenced after the swing has started
  • open loop is associatedd with quick, dynamic and ballistic actions
  • open loop is most likely to operate during closed skills
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Open and closed loop theory (2)

Level 2:

  • Level two operates on a short feedback loop and is a closed loop system of control
  • control is achieved through muscle reaction
  • without thinking, rapid adjustmentscan be made duting performance e,g downhill skier makes a subconscious alteration in order to retain balance
  • adjustments are stored in the long-term memory
  • its function is to complete the skill
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Open and closed loop theory (3)

Level 3:

  • Level 3 operates on a longer feedback loop because info is relayed back to the brain which in turn processes performance modifications
  • Feedback is information about the performance and outcome of the skill
  • This process involves thought and greater attention is given to the plan
  • adjustments are stored in the LTM as fresh motor programmes
  • level 3 closed loop is call the perceptual trace and is frequently used in open skills requiring decision-making e.g. passing a ball in rugby demands a conscious though
  • its function is to complete the skill
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The perceptual Trace

The perceptual tracte operates as follows:

  • 1. During performance the perceptual trace compares the current action against the learned pattern of movement which is stored in the LTM
  • 2. If the comparison matches the skill is allowed to continue and is reinforced
  • 3.The action will be modified if a mismatch is detected
  • 4. Modifications are stored as fresh motor programmes

Three drawbacks of open and closed threory are recognised:

  • 1. it would be impossible to store an infinite number of motor programmes
  • 2. if total retention/storage were possible, fast and accurate retrieval would be difficult
  • 3. The execution of a novel response could not happen because the necessary motor programme is not stored. A novel response is an unusual, improvised and often creative action
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Schema theory (Schmidt)

Schema theory provides a solution to the drawbacks above. It states that EMP's are not stored as seperate plans as presented by open and closed loop theory, but are stored in the LTM as experiences or relationships with motor programmes

  • Schema is an accumulation of experiences
  • Experiences or relationships are termed generalised movements
  • Generalised movements are adaptations or modifications of movements that transfer to help with the earning and performance of other skills.
  • Experience can be adapted and used to meet the demands of a new situation
  • The process of using experience to help with the learning of new skills and even with the performance of over-learned skills is called transfer

Experience is accumulated by gathering information from 4 memory items.

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Recall and recognition schema

Recall Schema (functions: to store information, to start response):

  • 1. Knowledge of initial conditions - refers to the environmental situation e.g the player may have experience a similar situation in a practice or a previous game
  • 2. Knowledge of response specification - Refers to knowing what to do in theis situation. e.g the well-timed pass may be the answer as it has been successful previously

Recognition schema(functions: to controls the movement, to elevate the performance):

  • 3. Knowledge of sensory consequences - refers to kinaesthesis. How much pressure or force to apply to the skill. e.g how hard should the ball be passed in this situation?
  • 4. Knowledge of outcome - Refers to knowing what the result of the skill is likely to be. e.g the well-times pass makes it impossible for the defender to make a tackle
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Connectionist/association theories

  • This theory depends upon linking or connecting a stimulus with a response
  • This connection is termed an S/R bond or learning bond
  • S represents the stiumuls, whilst R represents the response
  • the response becomes connected or associated with a solution
  • The connection of S/R bond or learning bonf is strengthend by the process of reinforcement
  • Reinforcement is the process causing behavious to reoccur
  • The learning bond is stored in the long-term memory

Reinforvement can be given in 2 ways:

  • 1. Positive reinforcement involves the presentationof the stimulus of approval or a 'satisfier' This could be in the form of verbal praise or a tangible reward
  • 2. Negative reinforcement involves the withdrawal of an aversive stimulus after behaviouf has occurred e.g criticism is withdrawn following a desired response
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Although learning can take place in different ways, Thorndyke believed that the most effective way to learn was to form and strenthen a learning bond through the application of reinforcement. Thorndyke present 2 laws that relate to application of reinforcement

1. Law of effect

2. Law of Exercise

3. Law of Readiness

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Operant conditioning

This is a major connectionist theory and was presented by a psychologist called Skinner

Operant conditioning involves:

1. Structuring a situation to bring about a desired response

2. Trial and error learning

3. Reinforcement of the response

4. Changing the response

5. The process of changing the response is termed 'behaviour shaping'

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Cognitive theory

  • A cognitive process is a thinking process - Gestalt

For learning to take place when cognitive theory is applied, 5 factors muct be in place.

1. Perception. This is interpretation or understanding of the whole taks e.g difficulty in executing a vault may be eased if the gymnast knew about the mechanical movement

2.Previous experience. Related experience can help to establish insight as to how the new task is to be performed. e.g  experience of throwing a ball relates to the learning of a tennis serve

3. Current knowledge. The learner needs an insight as to what is required e.g what strategies are required defeat a full court press in basketball

4. Motivation. The learner must be motivated to solve the problem

5. Self-esteem. Learning by the cognitive learning theory can be accomplished only if the novice has positive self-perception

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Observational learning

Banduras theory - learning was most effectively achieve by imitating others

Observational learning theory involves watching a demonstration and relpicating the model. The learner must display 4 factors before learning it can be achieved by way of observation

1. Attention - the learner is required to focus concentration onto the model

2. Retention - the learner must remember the image

3. Motor reproduction - the learner must have the necessary ability and skill to replicate the demonstration

4. Motivation - the learner must have the drive to learn

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Phases of movement skill learning

Fitts and posner presented 3 phases which relate to the aquisition of motor skills

Cognitive phase:

  • The thinking stage. The learner engages in mental rehearsal and would benefit from observing a demonstration
  • by the end ot this phase the learner would attempt to perform the skill
  • Feedback needs to be both extrinsic and positive to highlight errors

Associative phase:

  • The practice stage in which the learner participates physically
  • The response is inefficient and often incorrect
  • the learner requires great concentration during performance
  • Mental rehearsal can help learning and develop fluency
  • Demonstration remains important whilst reinforcement should be positive
  • Control of the skill is largely through external feedback(KR)
  • The learner begins to use intrinsic/kinaesthetic feedback(KP) to control the skill
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Phases of movement skill learning (2)

The autonomous phase:

  • The expert stage as the skill can be executed automatically
  • The movement has been grooved or overlearner
  • the correct response can now be associated with the correct feeling tone
  • attentinon can be given to perpheral environmental cues
  • demonstration and mental rehearsal remain important
  • the expert uses intrinsic feedback self correction(kp)
  • Negative extrinsic feedback from the coach assists fault correction and helps in fine tuning
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Methods of guidance

There are 4 types of guidance:

1. Visual guidance. This can be in the form of a demonstration or display changes e.g chalking the floor during tennis serving practice to give the learner a targer

2. Verbal guidance - this involves telling the learner what to do. It has more benefit to the learning of open skills, which require decision-making and perceptual judgements.

3. Manual guidance. The coach would hold and physically manipulate the body to give the learner an idea of how the skill should feel

4. Mechanical guidance. - this makes use of an object or piece of apparatus to shape the skill e.g a tackle bag in rugby

Both manual and mechanical guidance have drawbacks

  • the learning becomes reliant on the type of guidance
  • these types of guidance are not given in a real game situation so overuse of mechanical and manual guidance could result in negative transfer
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Transfer of learning

1. positive transfer - occurs when one skill helps the learning and performance of another - e.g throwing  helps racquet arm action of tennis serve

2. Negative transfer - is evident when one skill impedes the learning and performance of another e.g the wrist actions in tennis and badminton

3. Proactive transfer - takes place when a previously learned skill influences the learning of new skills either + or - e.g learning to throw overarm as a child will later help the racquet arm action when learning a tennis serve

4. Retroactive transfer - occurs when new skills influence the learning and performance of old skills either + or - e.g learning a tennis serve as a student may influence the throwing skills acquired as a child

5. Bilateral transfer - is the transfer of learning for limb to limb e.g learning to kick with your less dominant foot

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Motivation and arousal

Motivation is the psychological drive to succeed. Arousal is the degree of excitement or activation that prepares the person for performance

2 types of motivation:

  • 1. Intrinsic motivation is the drive from within e.g to achieve mastery for its own sake
  • 2. Extrinsic motivation is when motivation comed from outside e.g a trophy. Extrinsic reward is a valuable motivator for a beginner but will eventually undermine intrinsic motivation

Motivation has 2 components:

  • Intensity of behavious is the degree of physical and emotional energy displayed by the individual. This is known as arousal
  • Direction of behavious is the way arousal is used to reach a goal or target
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Drive theory

  • Drive theory indicates that as arousal increases, there is a proportional increase in the quality of performance
  • The quality of perfomance depends upon how well the skill has been learned
  • Actions that have been learned are called dominant responses
  • Dominant responses are the actions that are most likely to occur as arousal increases

The implications for teaching and learning are:

  • at the associative phase of learning the dominant response is likely to be incorrect. Therefore, the novice would learn better when in a condition of low arousal
  • at the autonomous phase of learning the dominant response is likely to be fluent and correct. Therefore the expert would perform better in an environment that stimulates high arousal
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Inverted U theory

  • Inverted U theory predicts that as arousal increases the quality of performance and capacity to concentrate improves to be at their best at optimal point
  • The optimal point is also called the threshold of arousal and occurs mid way along the arousal axis
  • After the optimal point if arousal contiues to increase the capacity to perform and concentrate will declilne

The implications for teaching are:

Under arousal:Attention field widen excessively, The learner cant attend to the most relevant cues, Info overload will result

Over arousal - Attention field narrows causing cues to be missed, learner may be experiencing high anxiert or panic, hypervigilence(this condition)

Optimal arousal - attention field adjusts to ideal width, learner is able to selectively attend to cues and proces info accordingly(cue utilisation), concentration is at a maximum

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Drive Reduction Theory

The initial drive to learn the skill is strong, but once the skill is learned, the drive is reduced as a result the performance quality of the skill will decline

The implications to teaching and learning are:

  • the drive to learn must be maintained
  • to replenish the drive, new targets should be set
  • drive reduction could occur because of boredom through repetition
  • practices should vary

strategies to increase the motivation to learn include:

  • positively reinforce learners performance
  • provide extrinsic reward
  • targets in learning should be challenging and realistic
  • the practice or drill to attain a specific goal should be changed appropriately(variability of practice)
  • make use of role models
  • teacher should present skill as being worthwhile to learn
  • the learner should be aware as to how progressions can be made
  • practices should be fun
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Practical conditions

2 practice conditions:

1. Massed practice - this is a practice session with no breaks. It is used when the tak is classified as simple/discrete. It can also be used when the motivation and ability of the group is high. Advantages: More physical work is possible in one session, allowd the learner to experience the flow of the whole skill, good for the development of kinasthesis

2. Distributed practice - this practice includes breaks and therefore the session is divided into shorter periods. It is used when the take is complex and classified as continuous and the ability of the group is low. Advantages: allows periods of rest, feedback and performance analysis can be given, enable the learner to engage in mental rehearsal

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Helena Clive


This is fantastic!!

Mr. Barwell


Amazing, but Slide 20 is abit blank..



How come when I download the pdf, every other slide is upside down. 

Mr. Barwell


t wrote:

You're meant to just fold them in half and use them as revision cards like that? :)

Maisie Buckley


so helpful, thank you ! 

Maisie Buckley


so helpful, thank you ! 






this infor is so great! Thank your post! fall guys



Thank you for posting this article. I act as a test user of game sites to check the safety of those game sites, I noticed a game that is being played a lot by students and is quite safe for everyone. Run 3 is a fun game with emotional running tracks. It is a popular game that attracts people of all genders and ages.



I really enjoyed this site. This is such a Great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free drift boss

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