Leadership and Organisation

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  • Created on: 12-12-16 20:43

Process Theories: Expectancy Theory

1. Expectancy Theory- Victor Vroom (1964)

The process whereby individuals alter their behaviour according to what they expect to achieve and the value they place on the reward on offer (valence). 

                                Image result for expectancy theory

A high level of performance would be achieved when employees could see a clear link between putting effort into their work and getting a desired outcome.

Individuals must place a value on a reward and perceive that the reward will be given if effort is made.

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Process Theories: Goal-setting Theory

2) Goal-setting Theory - Locke (1968)

Suggests that setting goals is critical to motivating people to perform.

Setting goals helps employees to be clear about expectations, gives them a focus and drives them to achieve results.

Most effective goals are ones that:

  • push people
  • are SMART
  • are agreed and not imposed
  • have a mechanism for continuous review and feedback
  • are linked to the organisational strategy and targets
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Content Theories:Two-Factor theory

4) Two-Factor theoryFrederick Herzberg (1959)

Herzberg showed that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors, and were not simply opposing reactions to the same factors.

Motivators – are factors that give  satisfaction and are effective in motivating individuals towards increased performance and producing longer lasting job satisfaction 

Hygiene Factors – have the potential to cause dissatisfaction if managers get them wrong.  But even if they get them right, the most that can be hoped for is a reduction in dissatisfaction or a short-lived increase in satisfaction.


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Content Theories: ERG Theory (2)

But, Alderfer’s theory differs from Maslow in the following important respects.

•Needs are in the form of a continuum rather than a hierarchy, moving in either direction,  from concrete existence needs to least concrete growth needs;

•Relatedness or Growth needs become more important when satisfied. Whereas Maslow states that when a need is satisfied, it becomes less important to an individual.

This means that team - working arrangements can continue to motivate employees and are not necessarily superseded by growth needs.

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Steers & porter’s application of the workplace

Self-Actualistion: Creativity, achievement and Challenging tasks

Esteem: Consistent feedback,Social Recognition, High status Job

Love/Belonging: Friendly Supervision, Cohesive work Group

Safety: Job security, Safe working conditions

Physiological: Payment and Working condition


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Content Theories: ERG Theory

3) ERG TheoryAlderfer (1972)

Alderfer (1972) suggests that individual needs can be divided into three groups:

1.EXISTENCE needs which include nutritional and material requirements (at work this would include pay and conditions.)  - (Maslow’s  Physiological and  safety needs)                                                     

2.RELATEDNESS needs - which are met through relationships with family and friends and at work with colleagues. (Social and Esteem needs)                                                                  

3.GROWTH needs - which reflect a desire for personal psychological developments. (Self-actualisation)


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Process Theories: EquityTheory

3. EquityTheory - John Stacey Adams (1963)

We each seek a fair balance between what we put into our job and what we get out of it. Adams calls these Inputs and Outputs. We form perceptions of what constitutes a fair balance or trade of inputs and outputs by comparing our own situation with other 'referents' (reference points or examples) in the market place. We are also influenced by colleagues, friends, partners in establishing these benchmarks and our own responses to them in relation to our own ratio of inputs to outputs                              .Image result for equity theory (http://www.businessballs.com/images/adams_equity_diagram_sm.gif)

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Process Theories: Equity Theory (2)

Equity TheoryJohn Stacey Adams (1963)...

If we feel that our inputs are fairly and adequately rewarded by outputs (the fairness benchmark being subjectively perceived from market norms and other comparable references) then we are happy in our work and motivated to continue inputting at the same level.

If we feel that our inputs out-weigh the outputs then we become demotivated in relation to our job and employer. 

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Leadership & the team : Belbin’s Team Types

Belbin’s Team Types -

Image result for Belbin Team Types

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Leadership & the team : Belbin’s Team Types (3)

Belbin’s Team Types (2)....

Image result for belbin thinking action (http://www.leadershipsolutions.co.nz/images/TAP.jpg)

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Leadership & the team : Belbin’s Team Types (1)

Team Roles (Belbin)

•Belbin explored team roles over a period of time and identified common roles that appeared crucial to effective team working.

•Individuals typically adopt a preferred role/or set of roles.

•“No one’s perfect, but a team can be” (Belbin) 

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Structural & Cultural Change: Lewin 3-step Model (

Lewin 3-step Model...

Unfreeze: Lewin’s Force Field Analysis

Driving forces pushing change                             Restraining forces against change      

Clear management goals                                                       Individual and group employee resistance   

Stable employee relations                                                      Structural issues

Clear vision and objectives for change                                     Leadership weaknesses    

Available resources                                                               Systems, processes, habits

External pressures – competition                                             Entrenched interests of stakeholders

Employee adaptability                                                           Lack of resources

Economies of scale                                                               Threat to power bases

Clearer management control                                                  Organisational culture

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Content Theories: Acquired Needs Theory

5. Acquired Needs Theory - David McClelland 

The theory proposes that certain types of needs are acquired during an individual’s lifetime.

The most common of these are:

Need for Achievement - the desire to accomplish something difficult, attain a high standard of success, master complex tasks, and surpass others

Need for Affiliation - the desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, and establish warm friendships

Need for Power- the desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others, and have authority over others.

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Structural & Cultural Change: Lewin 3-step Model (

Lewin 3-step Model-  Lewin 1947

1. UNFREEZE: Establish a clear vision for the need to change; Ensure that the driving forces of change outweigh the restraining and negative elements.

2. MOVE: Make the changes through altering, reconfiguring tasks and processes and changing the actions and behaviours of people and technology.

3. REFREEZE: Make the changes through altering, reconfiguring tasks and processes and changing the actions and behaviours of people and technology.

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Structural & Cultural Change: Kotter's 8 steps Mod

Kotter’s 8-Step Change ModelKotter (1996)

Step 1: Establishing a Sense of Urgency

Help others see the need for change and they will be convinced of the importance of acting immediately

Step 2: Creating the Guiding Coalition

Assemble a group with enough power to lead the change effort, and encourage the group to work as a team

Step 3: Developing a Change Vision

Create a vision to help direct the change effort, and develop strategies for achieving that vision.

Step 4: Communicating the Vision for Buy-in

Make sure as many as possible understand and accept the vision and the strategy

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Structural & Cultural Change: Kotter's 8 steps Mod

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model.......

Step 5: Empowering Broad-based Action Remove obstacles to change, change systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision, and encourage risk-taking and nontraditional ideas, activities, and actions.

Step 6: Generating Short-term Wins

Plan for achievements that can easily be made visible, follow-through with those achievements and recognize and reward employees who were involved.

Step 7: Never Letting Up

Use increased credibility to change systems, structures, and policies that don't fit the vision, also hire, promote, and develop employees who can implement the vision, and finally reinvigorate the process with new projects, themes, and change agents.

Step 8: Incorporating Changes into the Culture

Articulate the connections between the new behaviours and organizational success, and develop the means to ensure leadership development and succession. 

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Content Theories: Hierarchy of Needs

2) Hierarchy of Needs - Abraham Maslow (1943)

Hierarchy of human needs – starting at the lowest or basic level, an individual had to satisfy the needs at that level before moving up to the next.

Image result for hierarchy of needs (http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow-pyramid.jpg)

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1) Scientific Management - Frederick W. Taylor (1911)

•Job standardisation and job specialisation

•Employees must see managers as friends, not antagonists, in helping them earn higher wages

•People are motivated by money 

Image result for animated money

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The Functional (or Group) Approach

The Functional (or Group) Approach

Focuses on what the leader actually does rather than the leader.The functions or the contents of leadership.

How the leader beahviour affects, or is affectd by the followers (group).

Approach is assocaited with the work of JOHN ADAIR and his "Action-Centred Leadership."

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Leadership styles: Kurt Lewin Model

Kurt Lewin Model (1939)

* Authoritarian (or Autocratic) style

* Democratic (or Participatie) style

* Laissez-faire (or Delegative) style

                   Image result for lewin leadership styles

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The Skills Approach (2)

The Skills Approach (2)...

Technical Skill : Knowledge and proficiency in the work or activity

Human Skill : Knowledge of and ability to work with people (People skills)

Conceptual Skill : Ability to work with ideas that shape the organisation, development of strategies and formulation of company goals.

The Skills Model- (KATZ 1955)

    Related image

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The Skills Approach

The Behavioural Approaches...                                                                                         

The Skills Approach                                                                                

Knowledge and abilties are needed for effective leadershipSkills are what leaders can accomplish.

Northouse (2013) - Skills and abiltites can be learned and developed.

Katz (1955) - Suggested that effective adminsatration (i.e.leadership) depends on 3 basic personal skills:

1.) Technical

2.) Human                                        

3.) Conceptual.

Mumford, et al (2000) extend thismodeland examine the leader's knwoledfe and skills against perfromance.

Skills (cabilities) x Leaders performance ( Leadership outcomes) = Successful leader!

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  A body of research that suggests that motivation is driven by wants and needs.


The notion that individuals weigh up the value of what they give in return for what they expect to get, so motivation also comprises a rational decision-making process.

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Leadership styles: Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Contin

Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Continuum (1973) Identified a continuum(continous sequence) of leadership styles in decision-making, based on:

ØThe degree of authority used by the manager

ØThe area of freedom available to the non-manager    

 TELL   | SELL | CONSULT | JOIN     (http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/tutor2u-media/subjects/business/diagrams/leadership-tannenbaum-schmidt-diagram.png) 

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The Qualities or Traits Theory

The Qualities or Traits Theory

Drucker (1989)- Assumption that such people were born and not made"leadership cannot be created or promtoted. It cannot be taught or learned." 

Northhouse (2013)- Leaders were identified as having certain inhertited qualties or traits which were viewed as innate and alrgely fixed such as:

* Self Confidence,

* Intelleigence,

* Self-Belief,

* Determination.


Daft (2008)- Research has failed to produce a list of traits that would always gurantee leadership success.

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Leadership styles: The Leadership Grid

The Leadership Grid- Blake and McCanse (1991)

Two principle dimensions: Concern for Production – emphasis the leader places on accomplishing the task

Concern for People – emphasis the leader gives to subordinates’ needs and expectations. “Concern for” is not a mathematically measurable dimension i.e. ‘how much’ but indicates the strength of the assumptions that underlie the leader’s basic attitudes. Image result for the leadership grid (http://www.mba-institute.org/mba_training_images/MBA_Certified_Leader_Leadership_Grid.jpg)

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Leadership and Motivation: Motivation

Motivation refers to the forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.

Employee motivation affects productivity and so part of a leader’s job is to channel employees’ motivation toward the accomplishment of the organisation’s vision and goals.

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The Behavioural Approaches

The Behavioural Approach                                                                  

Focus on what leaders do in their leadership postion and how they behave towards their followers and how these correlate within leadership effectiveness.

Approach suggests that anyone who adopts the appropriate behaviour can be a good leader.


+ Behaviours can be learned more readily than traits,enabiling leadership to accessible to all.

The implication is that we can observe how leaders act, we can codify and measure this behaviour, find out ways to teach it, and help to develop future leaders.

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Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model

Image result for readiness with leadership style

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Power: Sources of Power

Sources of PowerFrench & Raven, 1959 

Image result for power (http://www.jambarteambuilding.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Power-Control.jpg) Formal Power:  Based on the individual's position in the organisation:

Reward Power- One who can distribute rewards that others want,either financial or non- financial.

Cocercive Power - Based on the ability to punish.

Legitimate Power- Comes from one's postion in the hierachy, such as from a manager.

Image result for power (http://appointmentschedulingnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/schedulingsystempoweruser.png) Informal or Personal Power: Comes from the individual's special charateristics or knowledge.

Referent Power - Based on the charateristics of the individual and the admiration for that person.

Expert Power- Orginiates from the expertise and skill of the individual.

Information Power- Based on the knowledge and ifnromation that the individual has and that is not readily available.

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Situational Leadership: Hersey and Blachard's Mode

Image result for leader behaviour hersey

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Situational Leadership: Hersey and Blachard's Mode

Contingency Approach :Situational theory: How a leader adapts to a situation (Leader can adjust style) 

Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model (1993)

Developed 4 styles of leadership:

1.  Telling     2. Selling      3. Participating     4.  Delegating

Image result for hersey and blanchard (http://speakinbytes.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/2speakingbytes01.png)


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Situational Leadership: Hersey and Blachard's Mode

-> The style is to be used is contingent upon the extent to which the subordinates are “ready” i.e. have the ability and willingness to accomplish a task

-> 4 levels of subordinate ‘Readiness’ – leader adopts a style contingent upon ‘readiness’ (or ‘maturity’)

-> READINESS is on a continuum of 4 levels:

Image result for followers readiness

Follower Readiness = ABLENESS & WILLINGNESS

And the actual style that the leader should use will be a correlation of 2 sets of behaviours used on the subordinates:

  • Task behaviour: the extent to which the leader provides direction for the task, sets goals, defines roles
  • Relationship behaviour: the extent to which the leader engages in two-way communications with followers and provides support and encouragement.
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Leadership Traits

Traits Approach

1. The 'Great Man' Theory                                                                                              Image result for animated baby (http://cliparts.co/cliparts/6ir/6Re/6ir6Reo4T.png)

2. The Qualities or Traits Theory

The 'Great Man' Theory

Daft (2008)- A single 'great man' who put everything together and influenced others to follow.

Carlyle (1888)- Effective leaders are those gifted with divine insipration and the right charateristics.


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Power: Organisational Power

Organisational Power

Mullins, 2006

  • At a broad level, power can be interpreted in terms of control or influence over the behaviour of other people with or without consent.
  • Power is an inherent feature of work organisations and is often the underlying reality behind the decision-making process.  It is central to the framework of order and system of command through which the work and activities of the organisation are carried out.

Morgan, 1986 - Power is the medium through which conflicts of interest are ultimately resolved.  Power influences who gets what, when and how.

Robbins, 1998 - A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire.

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Power: Compliance

Etzioni, 1975 - Compliance is the relationship between the kinds of power applied by the organisation to control its members and the kinds of involvement developed by members of the organisation. Therefore, power differs according to the means by which members of the organisation comply.The Etzioni typology  considers the relationship between:

Kinds of Power

Coercive Power relies on the use of threats or physical sanctions or force

Remunerative Power involves the use of rewards like pay, company benefits

Normative Power relies on the allocation of symbolic awards like esteem, prestige

Kinds of Involvement

Alienative Involvement occurs when members are involved against their wishes

Calculative Involvement occurs where attachment to the organisation is motivated by extrinsic rewards

Moral Involvement is based on the individual’s belief in, and value placed on, the goals of the organisation

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Power: The Etizoni Typology

Image result for The Etzioni typology (http://cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/clip_image0046.jpg)

When considered together, nine logical types of organisational relationships (compliance) result from this typology.  The 3 important ones are:

1. Coercive power with alienative involvement : e.g. prisons

5. Remunerative power with calculative involvement : e.g. business firms

9. Normative power with moral involvement : e.g. churches.

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Leadership styles: Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Contin

Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Continuum...

How to choose a leadership pattern?


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