C2 revision cards.
TOPICS- in your element
How fast? How furious?
Chemical structures


In your element - Ions

Electrons are negative.

An ion is an element which gains or loses and electron(s) from it's final shell.

There a two types of ions. Positive and negative.

1+ 2+ 3+ are positive. Positive ions have spares.

1- 2- 3- are negative. Negative ions have spaces.

The plus means something has been taken away frm it leaving it a positive. The minus means something has been added to it leaving it negative.

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In your element - Ions and isotopes

An element is a substance with a specific number of protons which can never change. They are pure and combine in chemical equations to make compounds.

An ion is an element which has gained or lost electron(s) from it's final shell.

An isotope is an element with the correct number of protons but a different number of neutrons.

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In your element - Electrolysis

Electrolysis breaks and splits ionic compounds.
The solution that the electrodes are in is saltwater (NaCl).
Cl- is attracted to the positive electrode (anode). You will make chlorine gas because it is diatomic and it loses electrons.
H+ is collected at the negative electrode (cathode).
Cl2 is tested by a bleached litmus paper.
H is tested by a squeaky pop.
NaOH (sodium hydroxide) is left.
It is called an anode because it attracts anions. The anode is positive, the anions are negative. ATTRACTS ANIONS (CHLORINE).
It is called a cathode because it collects cations. The cathode is negative, the cations are positive. COLLECTS CATIONS (HYDROGEN).

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In your element - metals

Metals always conduct electricity. No matter if its liquid or solid.
Metals are made up of a close-packed arrangement of particles. This type of structure is called a giant metallic structure.
These particles could be atoms, however each atom is known to lose some electrons which then move around the structure. This us why metal conducts electricity so well.

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