A level PE AQA Socio-cultural


Popular Recreation

Occassional- local

simple- unwritten rules



natural env.


force based

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Characteristics of Pre-industrial

.Limited communication

.Limited free time

.Widespread illiteracy

.Clear 2 tier class division

.Lived in country

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Characteristics of Pop. Recreation- MOB FOOTBALL

.Local + traditional- poor transport/communication

.Occassional- Holy days

.Few written rules

.Physical force not skill-violent

.Participation not spectatorism

.Simple eqt + facilities- common land between villages

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Characteristics of Pop. Recreation- REAL TENNIS

.Specialised facilites

.Complex rules

.Dress code=higher status-etiquette


.Played by royalty

.Farm workers=no time but royalty did

Lower class= simple version

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Industrial-Post Industrial: Urbanisation

Migration to towns/cities for work

.Lack of money + space for pop.recreation

.Purpose-built facilites

.Needed other 'past times' (no drinking)

.Loss of traditional sports

.Increased W.class pop.recreation as needed entertaining

.'spectatorism' increased as watched local teams

.Change in W.class conds= 12hrs a day, 6 days a week

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Industrial-Post industrial: Transport & Communicat

.Society= more literate.

.Developed steam trains=travel is easier=improved access across country=spectators watched regular fixtures.

.National/regional comps. e.g. FA cup

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Industrial-Post industrial: The Church

.Local authorities provided public facilties e.g. wash house/ swimming pools

.Sport promoted social control 

.Church facilities=venues

.Muscular christainity/ Athleticism= values through sport

.Church groups made Boy Brigades + Scouts

.Encouraged team formation

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Industrial-Post industrial: The British Empire

.Formed NGB's

.Public school boys= educated to lead

.'Games ethic'- sport for morality

.Teach sport values + traditional sport values through empire 

.Clergy-church teams

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Industrial-Post industrial: Middle Class

.New sports e.g. lawn tennis

.Amateurism-time to play

.Codification by public school boys+ government acts

.Formed NGB'S that control sport

.Sportsmanship/moral code

.Increased leisure time e.g. saturday half day

Helped development of professional sport- factory owners= broken time payments due to factory teams.

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Rational Recreation

regular, regional/national

strict codification-complex written rules


control gambling

3-tier system

purpose-built facilities (sophisticated eqt +facilties+referees)


skill based


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Formation of NGB's (1850-1880)

.Organised rules, fixtures, comps + leagues

.Nationally agreed rules + codification 

.Increased teams + clubs formed.

.Increased national + international fixtures.

.Maintainance of 'amateur ideal'-limted professionalism

.Exclusivity- middle + upper class (as amateurs didn't want to lose against professionals)

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Amateur= participate for pleasure not for financial gain


.emerged from Industrial rev. 

.'manliness, robustness, physical endeavour'

.respected rule regulated activity

.fair play sportsmanship= more important than winning

.amateur code to exclude w.class

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Gentleman Amateur

.18th + 19th century     

.very wealthy     

.no training     


.free time to play           

.respected members of society

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+ves for amateurism

.higher status- sport run by elite

.code of ethics-high moral values

.participation= more important than winning.

.participation belonged to social elite

.elite performers

.middle class admired values of U.class gentleman

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Rationalisation of Association Football

By urbanisation.

.Increased free time

.increased disposable income]

.increased professionalism

.increased organisation

.social class links

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Changing role of women- FOOTBALL

.During WW1- men in army

.1969- WFA formed.

.2015- 51 countries had womens national football league + England had 60,000 female players (along w/ other european countries)

Modern Day:

.increased equal opp.

.increased media coverage

.increased women role models (coaches, players + referees)

.increased provision via PE programmes

.increased clubs formed

.increased participation via funding into game + encouragement from FA

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Changing role of women- LAWN TENNIS

.1884=female participation

.broke stereotypes + promoted role models e.g. Lottie Dodd

.played in seclusion + private gardens

.minimum exercise activity

.not too vigorous, therefore women could play

.no special kit

Modern Day:

.WTA- fought for equal payments + created increased earnings + sponsorships which lead to increased media coverage

. lots of role models

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Changing role of women- TRACK + FIELD/ATHLETICS

.1880- AAA (amateur athletics ***.)- opened to all

.1922= women's AAA

.1928= women in the Olympics (but not triple jump)

Modern day:

.Stereotypes challenged

.increased role models 

.increased media coverage

.women allowed in all events

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Wenlock Olympian Games


.W.class to promote moral, physical + intellectual improvements 

.Dr William Penny Brookes

.e.g. football, cricket, running + hurdles

.Wenlock Agricultural Society

.Pierre de Coubertin + Penny Brookes = Ancient Olympics->Coubertin’s International Olympics (in Athens)

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Post WWII: characteristics of commercialisation


.sponsorship/links to business

.hughe media interest

.form of entertainment

use of contracts- sports+performers=commodities to be bought + sold.

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Commercialisation affecting sport

.changing to rules e.g. badminton 'american' scoring

.breaks in play for advertisment e.g. rugby world cup

.change in format e.g. 20/20 cricket

.media coverage limited to few (popular sports)

.use of tech= better viewing experience.

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Commercialisation on performance

.income/higher earnings

.paid more for winning there winning is important=win at all costs

.play even when injuried-commodity

.loss of privacy as controlled by sponsors

.commitment to training to improve performance 

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Commercialisation on amateurs & professionals

.lose of tradition-win ethic

.gate way career

.become role models + enourage participation= more money from sponsors

.professionals gain sponsors= more money

.amateurs lose interest in minority sports + gain it for pop. sports

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Modern day amateurs & professionals

A:                                                                            Blurred amateur + professiolnal distinction

.decrease status

.open to all (classes + women)

.some gain finance for training= full time

.can be scouted into professionals


.increased status.          .wages, media + sponsors.          

.all classes= social mobility.           .commercialised         

.respected for talents + efforts.          .role models.           .increased spectators

.higher standards as train full time

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Commercialisation on women

.increased recognition in sports

.not on prime time/channels= dcrease awareness

.still on tv + media= slight increase in participation

.male dominance still exists=women treated unequally

.some sports=grown massively for women e.g.football

.some representation of women fixtures, results + highlights- but not regular

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Golden Triangle





.all need eahcother to succeed

.media uses sport to gain viewers

.media uses business/sponsors for advertisement

.business/sponsors pay for media + advertisement space

.business/sponsors pay sport to act as advertisement

.sport must be in media to attract sponsorship

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Golden Triangle- Benefits to sport

.gets money for events to be televised

.money from business/sponorships for advertisement

.sport=increased popularity

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Golden Triangle- Negatives to sport

.media sensationalises sport

.media affects sport organisation

.media can change nature of sport due to breaks + new format/time

.minority sport=not televised

.players spend too much time working/training to improve performance, to get more money.

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Media's function in Golden Triangle

INFORMS-reports, analysis, highlights= informs businesses on results= increase interest from business, participants + sponsors.

EDUCATES-on skills, sports, morals=helps performance progress + supports morals/ sport ethic

ENTERTAINS-attracts viewers from drama + intensity. More viewers=helps sponsors sell products + performers, interest increases

ADVERTISES-products, sponsorship,sports= helps sponsors sell products to performers

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+ves of sport in media

.increaseed money from investing

.more viewers/sponsors/interest

.increased recognition of minority sports

.widely available

.inspires 'feel good factor' or patriotism

.creates role models= increased wealth +fame

.increased participation from youth

.media careers

.funding attracts sponsors

.replays/TMO+goal line tech= fairer results

.stereotypes broken e.g. women, disabled + tackles racism

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-ves of sport in media

.targets performers         

.media's not controlled       

.easy location to hate

.lack of privacy         

.loss of tradition-changes kick off times

.too much sport on TV         

.increased corruption as winning=everything

.pressure on players + coaches

.bad behaviour from role models can be copied

.media demands are high

.pay per view- not all can watch

.minority sports= limited coverage

.delays due to replays/TMO=disrupts games/performance

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Why sponsors?

.increased sales/profit/publicity

.increased brand awareness

.links excellence of sport to excellence of product

.links to healthy image of sport

.corporate hospitality

.dreceased tax paid by company= tax relief

.employers linked to success of sport

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An organised group ofpeople involved in interpersonal relationships, subject to same political authority + dominant cultural expectations.

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Learning norms, attitudes, values + culture from others.

Primary: early years of childhood- family

Secondary: teenage-adult years- peers + friends (family is less involved)

Gender Socialisation-learning to conform to gender roles through socialisation-inequality (feminine/masculine)

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Social processes

The ways in which individuals + groups interact, adjust + readjust + establish relationships + patterns of behaviour which are modified through social interactions.

Social interactions: when individuals or groups influence the behaviour of each other.

Social control- where peoples thoughts, feelings, appearance + behaviour are regulated in social systems.

Social change- changes in society over time.

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Social issues

Problems that affect many people in a society- stereotyping, discrimination, sexiam + inequality

Also seen as social inequality. e.g. culture, gender, disability + economic status.

Inequality- unfair situation where resources + opportunities= uneven in society.

Due to:

. lack of funding/pay

. lack of confidence

. lack of clubs + sponsorships

. lack of role models

. stereotypes

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Social structure/stratification

Social structure- type of school, family + friendship groups can affect a person's involvement in sport

Social stratification:


.society divided into different levels based on characteristics e.g. wealth + economical status/status (catagorisation).

.where when lower down system, Sport England identify you as under-represented e.g. disability + ethnic minorities. And when in dominant layer in UK sport= white,male in middle class.

Social class= group based on money/status

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Learning of values/ attitudes that are incorporated within. through primary + secondary socialisation.

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Organisation founded for religious, educational, professional or social purpose. e.g. schools, clubs 

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Social Action Theory

Society is created by social interaction

By interaction people form organisations e.g. schools + clubs. These influence people e.g. obeying rules + regulations.

When people interact they change social processes

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Social Interactionist Approach

Social processes based on behaviour in society.

Sports people interact with eachother in social groups + in turn can affect external factors 

e.g. getting sports to become more democratic + stop dominance of one group.

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Barriers to participation





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Barriers-INEQUALITY-causes & solutions


  • lack of time
  • -ves social influences
  • lack of motivation
  • lack of skill
  • lack of resources
  • family responsiblities


  • + physical activity to daily routine e.g. walk to rideto work
  • invite family/friends to exercise with you + on a regular basis
  • join classes
  • select activities with little or no skill required e.g. walking/jogging/running
  • select activities which require few facilities/equipment e.g.jogging/walking/running
  • exercise with children e.g.swimming
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Barriers-DISABLED-causes & solutions

Disability- a mental, physical or sensory impairment which affects performance.


  • lack of confidence
  • lower income
  • lack of access
  • lack of organised programme
  • low levels of media coverage
  • lackof specialist coaches
  • lack of adapted equipment
  • stereotpes
  • safety concerns


  • more opportunities for succes
  • makemore affordable
  • provide transport/ improve access
  • increase tech e.g. wheelchairs
  • improve media coverage= more role models
  • more specialist coaches/educate coaches
  • aducate against stereotpes
  • adapt activities e.g. wheelchair basketball
  • organisation to co-ordinate opportunities
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Barriers-ETHNICITY (.1)

Racial discrimination- reduces confidence + motivation

Racism- beliefs basedon assumptions that races have distinct hereditary characterisitcs.Can lead to physical + verbal abuse.


Stacking-disproportionate conc. of ethnic minorites in certain positions in sports teams. Based on stereotypes (based on physicality rather than decision making skills). Different people are guided into different sports due to colour/ethnicity

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Barriers-ETHNICITY-causes & solutions


  • conflict with religions
  • discouragement + higher value on education than sport
  • fear of racism, prejudice + discrimination
  • reduced role models e.g. coaches
  • fearof rejection= lowers levels of self esteem + confidence.
  • Language barriers may exist
  • stereotyping-> channelling

Channelling= Taking players fromone sport to the other based on assumptions.


  • train more ethnic minority coaches + educate on stereotyping
  • ensuring single-sex  provision e.g.muslin women
  • publicising + punishing racist abuse
  • improve PE provision for ethic preferences e.g. relaxed kit rules
  • organise campaigns against racism e.g.'kick it out'
  • +ve discrimination e.g. The Rooney Rule
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Women's involvement in indoor sports

e.g.pilates, aerobics + yoga- WHY?

  • comfortable environment
  • socially acceptable/feminine image
  • toning/body image
  • fashionable/enjoyable
  • accessible
  • developed for women traditionally
  • social
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Benefits of participation-SOCIAL

  • social wellbeing
  • friendships formed
  • meet new people
  • social skills
  • social ineteraction
  • boost mood
  • teamwork
  • increase social relationships
  • develop leadership
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Benefits of participation-FITNESS

  • improved muscualr strength etc.
  • improve cardiovascular fitness
  • improve fitness
  • able to play more sports
  • improves body image/shape-due to weight lose/improved body composition
  • improve speed
  • improved reaction time
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Benefits of participation-HEALTH

  • improved mental health/anxiety
  • less chance of heart disease
  • reduced risk of type 2 diabetes
  • avoidance of high/low blood pressure
  • strengthening of bones
  • reduced risk of some cancers
  • illnesses are less likely
  • reduces risk of obesity
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Benefits of participation-SOCIETY

  • improved health
  • reduces strain on NHS
  • health service-facilites developed
  • better enviroment
  • crime prevention
  • social control
  • inclusiveness
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Benefits of participation-INDIVIDUAL

  • loyalty
  • committment-motivation
  • self image/esteem
  • pridein self
  • happiness
  • relax
  • stress relief
  • econmic benefits
  • stress
  • confidence
  • sense of acheivement
  • mental health
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Sport England

Works to increase number of people who play sport regularly

  • fundsfromgovernment + national lottery (receiveing £200+ million)

Current initiatives:

  • This Girl Can
  • Sportivate
  • Sporting Champions
  • Creating a 'Sporting Habit for life'

Agencies Sport Englan work with:

  • Women in sport
  • sports coach UK
  • skills active
  • Sports Aid
  • any from above
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