The body

  • Created by: melissa
  • Created on: 16-10-14 09:10
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  • Biological evolution
    • ways the human body has evolved
      • Change in brain size: Many theories to explain why we have adapted. One theory is the brain expanded to accommodate the faculty of language
      • Change in teeth and ability to eat: Humans evolved beyond their vegetarian roots, eating meat requires teeth adapted to cutting rather than grinding
      • Bipedalism
        • the human foot evolved to act as a platform to support the weight of the whole body, humans now have smaller toes and a foot arch
    • consequences of adaptions to the body
      • Bipedalism:
        • Pro: use 75% less energy walking on 2 legs, humans can see over tall vegetation, having hands free means we are capable of carrying objects (tool use)
        • cons: now less capable of climbing so harder to escape from predators. slower and less agile, arthritis and back and knee problems, childbirth is more painful due to narrower pelvis
      • Brain size: can process and store a lot more information. However caused more painful childbirth
    • evidence for evolution
      • fossils: Shows how organisms have changed over time.supports the theory of evolution.
        • However not all organisms fossilize well. e.g. brains, but brain cases do, they represent the size and shape of the brain.
      • DNA:  can use the data to see how closely related the two species are to each other. scientists can compare the results with conventional ideas about how organisms have evolved. DNA data supported the conventional theory of evolution.
      • Morphology: comparison of body parts or anatomy of different organisms. Useful for sexualselection. Darwin compared the Peacock’s feathers.
    • Evolution: how plants and animals have adapted to survive in their environment over many years. Evolution due to natural selection leads to the development of new species- this is termed speciation.
    • Biological evolution: any genetic change in a population inherited over several generations.
    • Charles Darwin: Natural selection
      • The process by which biological evolutionary changes take place. Acts on populations. Individuals best suited to environment leave more offspring= change in genetic make up of a population. Environment determines which variations are more favorable. those best suited are more likely to survive.
    • Richard Dawkins: how evolution works
      • 1. replication of DNA         2. mistake in process of replication which leads to variation   3. usually negative but sometimes benefits         4. this variation is naturally selected  as a dominant characteristic
      • Variations: Differences between individuals of the same species.


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