The Provisional Committee and the Petrograd Soviet

  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 22-05-20 15:13
View mindmap
  • The Provisional Committee and the Petrograd Soviet
    • By late Feb, the Tsar's government effectively lost control of the capital.
      • On 27th Feb, two new organisations were formed:
        • The Provisional Committee
          • 12 members of the Duma formed an emergancy committee to keep the government going during the crisis.
        • The Petrograd Soviet
          • A committee of wrokers was formed to co-ordinate the strikes and to formulate the demands of the workers.
        • These two groups effectively took control of the city.
    • Order Number 1
      • On 1st March, the Petrograd Soviet demonstrated its authority by issuing Order Number 1.
        • The order was directed at the army.
          • It instructed soldiers to democratise the army, giving soldiers the power to elect their own officers and to question orders.
      • Although he order had no real authority, the majority of the Russian army obeyed it.
        • In this way the order was significant as:
          • It demonstrated the 'de facto' authority of the Duma.
          • Ended the authority of Tsar and his generals over the army.
    • The actions of the Provisional Committee
      • Key members of the Duma convinced important generals that military intervention could ignite a Civil War.
        • Thus, in the last days of February the Russian army didn't attempt to put down the revolution in the capital.
      • Order Number 1 further weakened the Tsar's position.
        • Rodzianko (one of the leading figures in the Duma) saw an opportunity to remove the Tsar.
          • He encouraged General Nikolai Ruzsky (commander of the Northen Front) to meet the Tsar at Pskv and encourage him to resign.
    • The middle class and the Tsar
      • The Russian middle class were unwilling to support the Tsar.
        • During 1915 factory owners in Petrograd had prospered due to profitable government contracts to produce munitions.
          • However, middle-class Russians believed that the monarchy was corrupt ad imcompetent.
            • They blamed the Tsar for the military and economic failures of 1915.
        • The middle class in Petrograd supported the new Provisional Committee.
          • They hoped that it would lead to a more effective and democratic government.
    • The abdication of Nicholas II
      • Representatives from the Duma met with the Tsar on board his train and requested his abdication.
        • The Tsar agreed to abdicate on 2nd March.
          • He abdicated for himself and for his son.
            • He believed his son was too ill to assume the government of Russia and feared for his own life.
      • Loss of elite support
        • Nicholas accepted that he must abdicate as he recognised he had lost the support of the Russian elite:
          • In 1905, Nicholas was able to reassert control of Russia because he had the support of the army.
            • However, in 1917 senior generals indicated that they were not willing to support him.
          • In 1905 Nicholas was able to reach a compromise with the middle class.
            • However, in 1917 the middle class had lost faith in the Tsar,.
              • This was due to rumours of corruption and the incompetence of his wartime government.
        • In 1917, Russian military leaders and the Russian middle class were united in a desire to win WW1.
          • They believed that they could build on the limited success achieved in the Brusilov Offensive, and work through the Zemgor to solve the munitions crisis.
            • In this context, they believed that the Tsar was an obstacle to military success and economic efficiency.
              • Therefore, the Russian elite abandoned the Tsar in order to win the war.


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »