The mass media and audiences

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  • The Mass Media and Audiences
    • Hypodermic Syringe Model
      • The media can 'inject' their messages into the audience, who accept them uncritically.
      • Bandura et al (1963) experiment.
        • Children were shown a video of a women beating up a bobo doll. After were sent to a room containing a bobo doll and  started attacking it.
        • Bandura concluded that violent media content could lead to 'copycat violence'.
      • Elizabeth Newson
        • Noted that children and teenagers are subjected to a lot of violence through the media.
          • Prolonged exposure to media violence may have a 'drip'drop' efect
      • Morgan (1980)
        • "*********** is the theory, **** is the practice."
      • Dworkin (1990)
        • *********** trivializes **** and makes men violent.
      • Criticism
        • Catharsis
        • Sensitization
        • Audiences are not homogenous
    • The two-step flow model
      • Katz and Lazarsfeld (1965)
        • Social networks are usually dominated by 'opinion leaders'.
      • Step one: The opinion leader is exposed to the media content.
      • Step two: Those who respect the opinion leader internalize their interpretation of that content.
      • Criticisms
        • There is not guarantee that the opinion leader has not been subjected to a desensitizing effect.
    • Selective filter model
      • Klapper (1960)
        • Selective exposure
          • The audience must choose to view, read or listen to the content of specific media.
        • Selective perception
          • The audience may not accept the message the media is trying to 'inject'.
        • Selective retention
          • People have a tendency to remember only the things which they agree to.
    • Uses and gratification model
      • McQuail and Lull
        • People use the media in order to satisfy their needs.
          • Marxists criticise the model because they suggest that needs may be socially manufactured by the media.
    • Reception analysis model
      • People interpret media content in different ways according to their class, age, gender ethnic group, etc.
      • Preferred reading
      • Oppositional reading
      • Negotiated reading
    • Cultural effects model
      • Marxists believe that the media are powerful in 'injecting' ideological values into people.
      • The GUMG's research into public perceptions of the miners' strike.
      • Criticisms
        • 'Cause' and 'effects' are very hard to measure.



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People consume media through various channels, including television, radio, print, online news websites, social media, and more. Media consumption patterns have evolved with technological advancements, leading to changes in how audiences access and interact with information. Official website



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