Russia: Nicholas' policies on Peasants, Urban Workers, National Minorities and, Intelligentsia

  • Created by: J.W.O
  • Created on: 18-09-21 22:46
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  • Tsar Nicholas II's policies on the Intelligentsia, National Minorities, Peasants, and Urban Workers
    • Intelligentsia
      • Causes of anger
        • Tsar opposed westernisation
          • This angered them as they wanted Russia to be more democratic
          • This angered them as compared to Russia, Europe was considered to be more advanced
            • Russia was not considered to be industrial unlike European nations like Germany, France, and the UK
      • Who were they?
        • primarily intellectuals: artists, writers, philosophers, and political activists
    • Urban Workers
      • Who were they?
        • 2.5% of population in 1900. Mostly former peasants. 57.6% could read and write, This made them politically active
      • Causes of anger
        • They didn't benefit from the growth of industry.
          • the people who benefitted the most were factory owners this meant that the workers were paid relatively little
            • This meant they couldn't progress in society due to low levels of wealth mobilisation.
        • low quality working + living  conditions
          • 11 hour work days, little safety procedure, ridden with disease.
          • lived in barrack like facilities near factories. These were unsanitary and had no privacy
      • What were Nicholas' policies on this group?
        • were these policies successful?
          • No. stopped workers improving their conditions  leading to anger. Workers also key in 1905 revolution
        • Unions were illegal
          • Workers couldn't demand better conditions
        • strikes led to imprisonment
    • National Minorities
      • Causes of anger
        • Russification
          • the act of making minorities more Russian
          • started by Tsar Alexander III
            • Continued by his son Nicholas II
          • Allowed government to have religious and cultural control
            • Caused 5 million Jewish people to flee
      • Who were they?
        • groups such as Estonians who have their own culture different to Russia
      • What were Nicholas' policies on this group?
        • forced teaching of Russian language
        • Suppression on Cultural activities
        • were these policies successful?
          • No. Widespread discrimination made them angrier. Led to further destabilisation
        • antisemitism laws
    • Peasants
      • Causes of anger
        • Unluxiorious Lifestyle
          • Farming was a tough job to the low amount of income due to the fact most farmers were subsidence farmers
        • Outdated tools for framing
          • Europe's equipment and agricultural practises improved centuries ago
        • After emancipation had to repay large amounts of money
          • Caused many to go into debt
      • Who were they?
        • Peasants were farmers. until 1861 they were owned by the aristocracy.
          • Their serfdom ended in 1861 due Alexander II's Emancipation reform of 1861.
      • What were Nicholas' policies on this group?
        • Conscripted into army
        • made them illiterate and uneducated
          • Prevented them progressing in society


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