reproduction key terms

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  • Reproduction: Key terms
    • haploid cell
      • a cell with half the number of chromosomes in the nucleus than a normal body cell e.g. a gamete (23 chromosomes in humans)
    • diploid cell
      • a cell with the normal set of chromosomes in the nucleus e.g. a skin cell (46 chromosomes in humans)
    • mitosis
      • used for growth and to replace/repairdamaged tissue, takes place everywhere except the reproductive organs, one cell division, two diploid daughter cells produced which are genetically identical
    • meiosis
      • used for production of gametes, takes place only in the reproductive organs, two cell divisions, four haploid daughter cells produced which are genetically different from each other
    • fertilisation
      • the fusion of the nuclei of a male and female gamete to form a zygote. it restores the diploid number and combines different sets of chromosomes
    • zygote
      • fertilised ovum or egg cell
    • embryo
      • as the zygote divides it forms a ball of dividing cells - this is the embryo. the cells will eventually become specialised through the process of differentiation
    • implantation
      • the process in which the embryo embeds itself into the lining of the uterus
    • differentiation
      • the process through which cells become specialised to carry out particular functions e.g. differentiationresults in the formation of a sperm cell with a tail, enabling it to swim and therefore meet the ovum as it travels down the oviduct


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