urine problems mindmap

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  • Qualitative
    • Benedicts
      • non- reducing
        • add HCl then heat and then add sodium hydrocarbonate to neutralize i- stop adding when it stops effervesing
          • fructose and sucrose
            • HCl breaks these down into glucose
      • reducing sugar ( the one we're doing)
        • glucose is a reducing sugar
        • it will turn from a blue solution to form a red precipitate upon heating
    • Biuret
      • test for protein
        • blue solution goes purple for a positive test.
      • the chemical binds to peptide bonds
    • urinary infection
      • yeast ceklls are present in the urine if an infection is present
    • Results
      • positive test for buiret
        • means that proteins are present in the urine
          • this is generally a reflection of damage to the basement membrane, hypertension, nephritus or infection
            • normally a membrane should only allow molecules of a mass less than 69000mr, so normally proteins would not get through so would not be found in the urine.
            • there are no carrier proteins in the nephron for the proteins to be reabsorbed so any proteins in the filtrate will be found in the urine.
      • positive test for benedicts
        • means that glucose is present in the urine.
          • this is reflective of diabetes
            • the effect of insulin is not present
              • this means there is a higher blood glucoser concentration than normal
                • the rate of filtration is then faster than the rate of reabsorbtion so glucose is found in the urine. in a normal person glucose would not be found in the urine. reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubules.
              • therefore glycogenesis does not take place and glucose is not converted into glycogen
              • insulin causes more glucose channels to be placed into cell surface membranes so the cells are more permeable to glucose.(insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into the cell.
              • more glucose is converted into fats
              • more glucose is used in respiration
    • General points
      • tables
        • colour changes observed with benedicts etc
          • make sure you say what the colour changes from and to
        • patient down the left , sub divided into their different samples
        • independent always goes in the first column
          • patient down the left , sub divided into their different samples
      • tubules
        • PCT
          • re absorption of amino acids, glucose an some salts( water foillows by osmosis
        • DCT
          • fine tune blood ion concentration and water concentration. water permeability is regulates by ADH. also control blood pH by secretion or uptake of H+ ions
        • Loop of Henle
          • re-absorption of water
        • collecting duct
          • fine tuning of water concentration controlled by ADH and the hypothalamus (osmoreceptors)


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