pe alevel skill quisition (not all of it)

  • Created by: broomeyy
  • Created on: 19-02-21 17:00
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    • learning theories
      • operant conditioning involves the bonding of a response to a particular stimulus - often achieved via reinforcement
        • in motor skill learning, the use of reward and negative reinforcement is important in shaping desired movements
      • the cognitive theory of learning involves performers solving the problems associated eith learning sports skills
        • by drawing together intervening variables to make sense of the environment and eventually to solve the problems by producing desired movements
      • social or observational learning theory states that when we learn by watching others we look up to and whish to emulate - the model we follow should be technically accurate so that the correct movement is learned
        • bandura's model of observational learning shows the important elemants watching and copying a demonstration of a sports skill
    • feedback
      • feedback occurs both during and after movement
      • the teo main types of feedback are knowledge of results and knowledge of performance
      • feedback can help to reinforce effective moevements and to detect and correct errors
      • positive feedback is generally more effective than negative but the latter can be effective, especially with autonomous learners
      • in order to motivate a performer, its important to guve the appropriate feedback and to set relevant goals
    • attitude
      • attitudes are learned and are made up of beliefs, emotions and the way we behave (cognitive,affective,behavioural) - the triadic model
      • prejudice is an extreme form of attitude - it is judgemental and inflexible
      • attitudes can be changed through persuasion and conitive disonance
      • attitudes depend largely on previous experience and social learning - we tend to follow social norms - expectations of behaviour can influence actual behaviour
      • stereotyping persists in sport but is constantly being challenged and equal oppotunities are more realisable
    • aggression
      • aggression is the intent to harm outside the rules of the game
      • the frustration - aggression hypothesis is a drive theory, which states that blocking goals can cause frustration to build up
        • this can result in aggression, which leads to catharsis, this theory seems to be valid if aggression is seen as potential rather than actual
      • the instinct theory states that aggression is innate, however the instinct theory has been largely discredited
      • the social learning theory states that we learn to be aggressive by watching significant others being aggressive and if the aggression of significant others is reinforced, known as optimistic approach
    • goal setting
      • goal setting can help motivation, boost confidence and help with anxiety control
      • goal setting is good for concentration and focusing attention to develop skills and strategies
      • the SMART principle makes goal setting even more effective for sports perfomance


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