• Created by: melissa
  • Created on: 05-12-14 18:29
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  • Globalisation and crime
    • Globalisation= The increasing interconnecte-dness of societies
    • Why is Globalisation relevant to criminology?
      • 1. It leads to new opportunities for crime, or new means by which criminal activities can be conducted
        • Revolution in communication technologies allows people and signals to be transported around the globe
        • Example is internet fraud. Internet makes new forms of fraud and technologies for fraud
      • 2. It gives rise to new insecurities and inequalities
      • 3. One of the consequences is that it gives rise to a new mentality which prioritises awareness of risk as a central way of organising political and social life
      • 4. Effects the nature of the nation state and therefore has consequences for the organisation of police and criminal justice. E.g. human rights Act
    • The global criminal economy:
      • Castells: global criminal economy worth over £1 trillion per annum. e.g. trafficking arms and nuclear materials, smuggling immigrants, trafficking women and children, sex tourism, cybercrime, green crime, tourism
        • Money laundering of the profits from organised crime is estimated at $1.5 trillion annually.
      • David Held et al- Globalisation of crime: The increasing interconnecte-dness of crime across national borders, and the spread of transnational organised crime.
    • Global risk Consciousness: (new insecurities)
      • Risk= global rather than tied to particular places
        • Example: economic migrants and asylum seekers fleeing persecution=rise in anxieties in western countries. Leading to intensification of social control e.g. UK tightened border control regulations+ increasing threat of 'international terroism'
        • Beck describes late modern society as 'global risk society'. The risks of harm to the environment and new insecurities are risks increasingly on a global scale.
    • Globalisation, Capitalism and crime
      • Marxist Ian Taylor: globalisation has led to greater inequality.
        • TNC's can switch manufacturing to low wage countries for high profits, results in job insecurities, unemployment and poverty, this can cause young working class men in particular to turn to crime.
        • An underclass has developed in American and British cities, but he thinks underclass criminality is caused by material deprivation and job insecurity not a dependency culture.
        • Increase in part-time and temporary jobs encourages employment of people working illegally, especially illegal immigrants, and those working and claiming benefits. More likely employers pay low wages and ignore health and safety regulations.
    • Global corporate crime can also be green– environmental pollution such as Bhopal, India =Union Carbide.
    • 'Glocal' organisation- Crime works as a 'glocal system'= locally based but with global connections
      • Hobbs and Dunningham- organisation of crime linked to globalisation. Increasingly involves individuals acting as a 'hub' around which a loose-knit network forms, often linking legitimate +illegitimate crimes.
        • Although these new forms of organisation have global links e.g. drug smuggling, crimes still rooted in its local context. Crime works as a 'glocal' system
      • McMafia: (Glenny) organisations that emerged in Russia and Eastern Europe after the fall of communism 1989.
        • New Russian government deregulated economy-huge rises in food and rent. Commodity prices for oil, gas, metals, etc kept at old soviet prices-below world market price. Well connected citizens with access to large funds could buy these up and sell them in the world market. Creating new elite ('oligrachs').
          • To protect themselves from increasing disorder, oligarchs turned to new 'mafias' (often composed of ex-state security/secret servicemen from the old communist regimes). These criminal organisations vital for the entry of new Russian capitalist class into the world economy.


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