A-Level Geography - Human - Global Governance

  • Created by: Noah_S
  • Created on: 30-04-22 13:34
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  • Global Governance
    • Criticisms
      • System problems
        • Signing to international laws and institutions is voluntary
          • Trump pulled the USA out of the Paris agreement in 2020, complicating the global response to climate change
        • Difficult to make countries & TNCs comply with rules
          • In 2016, China went against court ruling that make its claims over the South China Sea against international law
        • Claims that global institutions act for political reasons
          • Alleged that some countries have used the International Criminal Court to remove people in power in Africa
      • Inequalities and Injustices
        • Conditions to receive a loan from the IMF or World Bank, which may make poverty in inequality in LICs worse
          • LICs may have to implement free trade policies and cut government spending, often on education and health care
        • Economic groups like the G7 strengthen the power of HICs, instead of encouraging equality between HICs and LICs
        • Members of security institutions can prevent actions from taking place, like Russia vetoing resolutions to end the invasion of Ukraine
    • Case Study: United Nations
      • Set up in the 1945 to establish a peaceful and fair world, and currently has 193 member countries
        • Has a lot of authority since every country in the world is a member
      • Countries sign up to the UN Charter, which tells what the functions of the UN are
        • They are to maintain global peace and security, develop friendly relations between nations, use cooperation to solve problems and to settle disputes
      • Made out of several organisations, like the UN Security Council (maintains peace) and the UN General Assembly (parliament of nations that make decisions)
      • UN Millennium Development Goals have reduced poverty & increase children in education, promoting growth; UN peacekeeping missions can help to end wars like in Cote d'lvoire to help stability
      • HICs hold the most power over decisions, but many global issues tackled by the UN affect African nations, showing inequality
      • UN peacekeepers in 1995 failed to protect 8000 people that were massacred by Bosnian Serbs, showing injustices
    • General Theory
      • Norms, Laws & Institutions
        • International laws are rules established through international agreements, which cover human rights, trade regulation, etc
          • Legally binding, so countries follow them
        • Norms are accepted standards of behaviour, which there are negative consequences who don't follow them
          • Freedom of speech is a norm, which countries that don't follow this norm like China receive condemnation
        • Institutions are political/legal organisations that pass or enforce laws, or as a forum for groups
          • The UN, World Trade Organisation (WTO) & World Health Organisation (WHO) are institutions
          • Aim to promote growth and stability
      • Global Governance
        • "sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public and private, manage their global affairs" - The Commission on Global Governance
        • Regulates the global economic and political systems by setting up rules should follow and monitor them
        • Makes everyone taking part in the global system act in a certain way
        • Aims to promote growth and stability
      • Governments, TNCs & Institutions
        • Reactive: Governments legislate and invest in the local, national and international scale
        • Proactive: Governments lobby for and contribute to discussions, votes and decisions
        • Reactive: TNCs compensate and adopt new codes of conduct / working practices imposed by legislation
        • Proactive: TNCs sponsor and support the work of NGOs
        • Reactive: Institutions respond to global events to offer advice to national govenments
        • Proactive: Institutions sponsor, facilitate and publicise international issues and agreements


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